# Articles by ApokalypsePartyTeam

### Beginner’s guide to machine learning in R (with step-by-step tutorial)

February 10, 2022 |

If you’re a graduate of economics, psychology, sociology, medicine, biostatistics, ecology, or related fields, you probably have received some training in statistics, but much less likely in machine learning. This is a problem because machine-learning algorithms are much better capable to solve many real-world applications compared with the procedures ...

### Finally understanding what “statistical significance” and p-values mean: A simple example (with R code)

January 9, 2022 |

One day I realized that I finally really understood what “statistical significance” means (p __ .01). I had probably heard the term hundreds of times by then. If you are still struggling with the concept, I hope it doesn’t take you this long and perhaps this post can be of help. ...

### Simple examples to understand what confounders, colliders, mediators, and moderators are and how to “control for” variables in R with regression and propensity-score matching

January 5, 2022 |

In a hospital, 9% of all patients have Covid-19. But: Among the heavy smokers among these patients, only 6% have Covid-19. What? Does smoking reduce your risk of getting Covid? Another example: I recently saw a post on Twitter with a line graph showing that, in the UK, persons aged 18 to 59 who ...

### Detecting topics in mails, tweets, etc.: How to create a text classification algorithm in R

November 29, 2021 |

This tutorial might be for you if, e.g.: You have a lot of customer e-mails, or online-reviews on sales platforms or app stores for your product, etc., and you want to have a statistic based on the content of the texts: How many customers are complaining about a defect ...

### Image segmentation in R: Automatic background removal like in a Zoom conference

April 9, 2021 |

Today we want to train a deep learning model that detects a foreground object on an image (say, a bird), automatically crops the bird and removes the background, and pastes the bird onto a new background. So we want to automate this process: Why would you want to do this? ...

### How to build your own image recognition app with R! [Part 2]

March 30, 2021 |

Here is a screenshot of what we are going to build today. Want to see a live demo? Scroll down for the link! We are building an app that lets you upload images of birds (e.g., taken by your phone) and, with the help of a deep learning model, ...