Base-R Is Alive and Well

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As many readers of this blog know, I strongly believe that R learners should be taught base-R, not the tidyverse. Eventually the students may settle on using a mix of the two paradigms, but at the learning stage they will benefit from the fact that base-R is simple and more powerful. I’ve written my thoughts in a detailed essay.

One of the most powerful tools in base-R is tapply(), a workhorse of base-R. I give several examples in my essay in which it is much simpler and easier to use that function instead of the tidyverse.

Yet somehow there is a disdain for tapply() among many who use and teach Tidy. To them, the function is the epitome of “what’s wrong with” base-R. The latest example of this attitude arose in Twitter a few days ago, in which two Tidy supporters were mocking tapply(), treating it as a highly niche function with no value in ordinary daily usage of R. They strongly disagreed with my “workhorse” claim, until I showed them that in the code of ggplot2, Hadley has 7 calls to tapply(),

So I did a little investigation of well-known R packages by RStudio and others. The results, which I’ve added as a new section in my essay, are excerpted below.


All the breathless claims that Tidy is more modern and clearer, whilc base-R is old-fashioned and unclear, fly in the face of the fact that RStudio developers, and authors of other prominent R packages, tend to write in base-R, not Tidy. And all of them use some base-R instead of the corresponding Tidy constructs.

package *apply() calls mutate() calls
brms 333 0
broom 38 58
datapasta 31 0
forecast 82 0
future 71 0
ggplot2 78 0
glmnet 92 0
gt 112 87
knitr 73 0
naniar 3 44
parsnip 45 33
purrr 10 0
rmarkdown 0 0
RSQLite 14 0
tensorflow 32 0
tidymodels 8 0
tidytext 5 6
tsibble 8 19
VIM 117 19

Striking numbers to those who learned R via a tidyverse course. In particular, mutate() is one of the very first verbs one learns in a Tidy course, yet mutate() is used 0 times in most of the above packages. And even in the packages in which this function is called a lot, they also have plenty of calls to base-R *apply(), functions which Tidy is supposed to replace.

Now, why do these prominent R developers often use base-R, rather than the allegedly “modern and clearer” Tidy? Because base-R is easier.

And if it’s easier for them, it’s even further easier for R learners. In fact, an article discussed later in this essay, aggressively promoting Tidy, actually accuses students who use base-R instead of Tidy as taking the easy way out. Easier, indeed!

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