Acoustic: Solving a CyberDefenders PCAP SIP/RTP Challenge with R, Zeek, tshark (& friends)

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Hot on the heels of the previous CyberDefenders Challenge Solution comes this noisy installment which solves their Acoustic challenge.

You can find the source Rmd on GitHub, but I’m also testing the limits of WP’s markdown rendering and putting it in-stream as well.

No longer book expository this time since much of the setup/explanatory bits from it apply here as well).

Acoustic

This challenge takes us “into the world of voice communications on the internet. VoIP is becoming the de-facto standard for voice communication. As this technology becomes more common, malicious parties have more opportunities and stronger motives to control these systems to conduct nefarious activities. This challenge was designed to examine and explore some of the attributes of the SIP and RTP protocols.”

We have two files to work with:

  • log.txt which was generated from an unadvertised, passive honeypot located on the internet such that any traffic destined to it must be nefarious. Unknown parties scanned the honeypot with a range of tools, and this activity is represented in the log file.
    • The IP address of the honeypot has been changed to “honey.pot.IP.removed”. In terms of geolocation, pick your favorite city.
    • The MD5 hash in the authorization digest is replaced with “MD5_hash_removedXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
    • Some octets of external IP addresses have been replaced with an “X”
    • Several trailing digits of phone numbers have been replaced with an “X”
    • Assume the timestamps in the log files are UTC.
  • Voip-trace.pcap was created by honeynet members for this forensic challenge to allow participants to employ network analysis skills in the VOIP context.

There are 14 questions to answer.

If you are not familiar with SIP and/or RTP you should do a bit of research first. A good place to start is RTC 3261 (for SIP) and RFC 3550 (for RTC). Some questions may be able to be answered just by knowing the details of these protocols.

Convert the PCAP

library(stringi)
library(tidyverse)

We’ll pre-generate Zeek logs. The -C tells Zeek to not bother with checksums, -r tells it to read from a file and the LogAscii::use_json=T means we want JSON output vs the default delimited files. JSON gives us data types (the headers in the delimited files do as well, but we’d have to write something to read those types then deal with it vs get this for free out of the box with JSON).

system("ZEEK_LOG_SUFFIX=json /opt/zeek/bin/zeek -C -r src/Voip-trace.pcap LogAscii::use_json=T HTTP::default_capture_password=T")

We process the PCAP twice with tshark. Once to get the handy (and small) packet summary table, then dump the whole thing to JSON. We may need to run tshark again down the road a bit.

system("tshark -T tabs -r src/Voip-trace.pcap > voip-packets.tsv")
system("tshark -T json -r src/Voip-trace.pcap > voip-trace")

Examine and Process log.txt

We aren’t told what format log.txt is in, so let’s take a look:

cd_sip_log <- stri_read_lines("src/log.txt")

cat(head(cd_sip_log, 25), sep="\n")
## Source: 210.184.X.Y:1083
## Datetime: 2010-05-02 01:43:05.606584
## 
## Message:
## 
## OPTIONS sip:[email protected] SIP/2.0
## Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 127.0.0.1:5061;branch=z9hG4bK-2159139916;rport
## Content-Length: 0
## From: "sipvicious"<sip:[email protected]>; tag=X_removed
## Accept: application/sdp
## User-Agent: friendly-scanner
## To: "sipvicious"<sip:[email protected]>
## Contact: sip:[email protected]:5061
## CSeq: 1 OPTIONS
## Call-ID: 845752980453913316694142
## Max-Forwards: 70
## 
## 
## 
## 
## -------------------------
## Source: 210.184.X.Y:4956
## Datetime: 2010-05-02 01:43:12.488811
## 
## Message:

These look a bit like HTTP server responses, but we know we’re working in SIP land and if you perused the RFC you’d have noticed that SIP is an HTTP-like ASCII protocol. While some HTTP response parsers might work on these records, it’s pretty straightforward to whip up a bespoke pseudo-parser.

Let’s see how many records there are by counting the number of “Message:” lines (we’re doing this, primarily, to see if we should use the {furrr} package to speed up processing):

cd_sip_log[stri_detect_fixed(cd_sip_log, "Message:")] %>%
  table()
## .
## Message: 
##     4266

There are many, so we’ll avoid parallel processing the data and just use a single thread.

One way to tackle the parsing is to look for the stop and start of each record, extract fields (these have similar formats to HTTP headers), and perhaps have to extract content as well. We know this because there are “Content-Length:” fields. According to the RFC they are supposed to exist for every message. Let’s first see if any “Content-Length:” header records are greater than 0. We’ll do this with a little help from the ripgrep utility as it provides a way to see context before and/or after matched patterns:

cat(system('rg --after-context=10 "^Content-Length: [^0]" src/log.txt', intern=TRUE), sep="\n")
## Content-Length: 330
## 
## v=0
## o=Zoiper_user 0 0 IN IP4 89.42.194.X
## s=Zoiper_session
## c=IN IP4 89.42.194.X
## t=0 0
## m=audio 52999 RTP/AVP 3 0 8 110 98 101
## a=rtpmap:3 GSM/8000
## a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
## a=rtpmap:8 PCMA/8000
## --
## Content-Length: 330
## 
## v=0
## o=Zoiper_user 0 0 IN IP4 89.42.194.X
## s=Zoiper_session
## c=IN IP4 89.42.194.X
## t=0 0
## m=audio 52999 RTP/AVP 3 0 8 110 98 101
## a=rtpmap:3 GSM/8000
## a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
## a=rtpmap:8 PCMA/8000
## --
## Content-Length: 330
## 
## v=0
## o=Zoiper_user 0 0 IN IP4 89.42.194.X
## s=Zoiper_session
## c=IN IP4 89.42.194.X
## t=0 0
## m=audio 52999 RTP/AVP 3 0 8 110 98 101
## a=rtpmap:3 GSM/8000
## a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
## a=rtpmap:8 PCMA/8000
## --
## Content-Length: 330
## 
## v=0
## o=Zoiper_user 0 0 IN IP4 89.42.194.X
## s=Zoiper_session
## c=IN IP4 89.42.194.X
## t=0 0
## m=audio 52999 RTP/AVP 3 0 8 110 98 101
## a=rtpmap:3 GSM/8000
## a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
## a=rtpmap:8 PCMA/8000

So,we do need to account for content. It’s still pretty straightforward (explanatory comments inline):

starts <- which(stri_detect_regex(cd_sip_log, "^Source:"))
stops <- which(stri_detect_regex(cd_sip_log, "^----------"))

map2_dfr(starts, stops, ~{

  raw_rec <- stri_trim_both(cd_sip_log[.x:.y]) # target the record from the log
  raw_rec <- raw_rec[raw_rec != "-------------------------"] # remove separator

  msg_idx <- which(stri_detect_regex(raw_rec, "^Message:")) # find where "Message:" line is
  source_idx <- which(stri_detect_regex(raw_rec, "^Source: ")) # find where "Source:" line is
  datetime_idx <- which(stri_detect_regex(raw_rec, "^Datetime: ")) # find where "Datetime:" line is
  contents_idx <- which(stri_detect_regex(raw_rec[(msg_idx+2):length(raw_rec)], "^$"))[1] + 2 # get position of the "data"

  source <- stri_match_first_regex(raw_rec[source_idx], "^Source: (.*)$")[,2] # extract source
  datetime <- stri_match_first_regex(raw_rec[datetime_idx], "^Datetime: (.*)$")[,2] # extract datetime
  request <- raw_rec[msg_idx+2] # extract request line

  # build a matrix out of the remaining headers. header key will be in column 2, value will be in column 3
  tmp <- stri_match_first_regex(raw_rec[(msg_idx+3):contents_idx], "^([^:]+):[[:space:]]+(.*)$")
  tmp[,2] <- stri_trans_tolower(tmp[,2]) # lowercase the header key
  tmp[,2] <- stri_replace_all_fixed(tmp[,2], "-", "_") # turn dashes to underscores so we can more easily use the keys as column names

  contents <- raw_rec[(contents_idx+1):length(raw_rec)]
  contents <- paste0(contents[contents != ""], collapse = "\n")

  as.list(tmp[,3]) %>% # turn the header values into a list
    set_names(tmp[,2]) %>% # make their names the tranformed keys
    append(c(
      source = source, # add source to the list (etc)
      datetime = datetime,
      request = request,
      contents = contents
    ))

}) -> sip_log_parsed

Let’s see what we have:

sip_log_parsed
## # A tibble: 4,266 x 18
##    via     content_length from    accept  user_agent to     contact cseq  source
##    <chr>   <chr>          <chr>   <chr>   <chr>      <chr>  <chr>   <chr> <chr> 
##  1 SIP/2.… 0              "\"sip… applic… friendly-… "\"si… sip:10… 1 OP… 210.1…
##  2 SIP/2.… 0              "\"342… applic… friendly-… "\"34… sip:34… 1 RE… 210.1…
##  3 SIP/2.… 0              "\"172… applic… friendly-… "\"17… sip:17… 1 RE… 210.1…
##  4 SIP/2.… 0              "\"adm… applic… friendly-… "\"ad… sip:ad… 1 RE… 210.1…
##  5 SIP/2.… 0              "\"inf… applic… friendly-… "\"in… sip:in… 1 RE… 210.1…
##  6 SIP/2.… 0              "\"tes… applic… friendly-… "\"te… sip:te… 1 RE… 210.1…
##  7 SIP/2.… 0              "\"pos… applic… friendly-… "\"po… sip:po… 1 RE… 210.1…
##  8 SIP/2.… 0              "\"sal… applic… friendly-… "\"sa… sip:sa… 1 RE… 210.1…
##  9 SIP/2.… 0              "\"ser… applic… friendly-… "\"se… sip:se… 1 RE… 210.1…
## 10 SIP/2.… 0              "\"sup… applic… friendly-… "\"su… sip:su… 1 RE… 210.1…
## # … with 4,256 more rows, and 9 more variables: datetime <chr>, request <chr>,
## #   contents <chr>, call_id <chr>, max_forwards <chr>, expires <chr>,
## #   allow <chr>, authorization <chr>, content_type <chr>

glimpse(sip_log_parsed)
## Rows: 4,266
## Columns: 18
## $ via            <chr> "SIP/2.0/UDP 127.0.0.1:5061;branch=z9hG4bK-2159139916;r…
## $ content_length <chr> "0", "0", "0", "0", "0", "0", "0", "0", "0", "0", "0", …
## $ from           <chr> "\"sipvicious\"<sip:[email protected]>; tag=X_removed", "\"34…
## $ accept         <chr> "application/sdp", "application/sdp", "application/sdp"…
## $ user_agent     <chr> "friendly-scanner", "friendly-scanner", "friendly-scann…
## $ to             <chr> "\"sipvicious\"<sip:[email protected]>", "\"3428948518\"<sip:…
## $ contact        <chr> "sip:[email protected]:5061", "sip:[email protected]…
## $ cseq           <chr> "1 OPTIONS", "1 REGISTER", "1 REGISTER", "1 REGISTER", …
## $ source         <chr> "210.184.X.Y:1083", "210.184.X.Y:4956", "210.184.X.Y:51…
## $ datetime       <chr> "2010-05-02 01:43:05.606584", "2010-05-02 01:43:12.4888…
## $ request        <chr> "OPTIONS sip:[email protected] SIP/2.0", "REGIST…
## $ contents       <chr> "Call-ID: 845752980453913316694142\nMax-Forwards: 70", …
## $ call_id        <chr> NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA,…
## $ max_forwards   <chr> NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA,…
## $ expires        <chr> NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA,…
## $ allow          <chr> NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA,…
## $ authorization  <chr> NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA,…
## $ content_type   <chr> NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA,…

Looks 👍, but IRL there are edge-cases we’d have to deal with.

Process Zeek Logs

Because they’re JSON files, and the names are reasonable, we can do some magic incantations to read them all in and shove them into a list we’ll call zeek:

zeek <- list()

list.files(
  pattern = "json$",
  full.names = TRUE
) %>%
  walk(~{
    append(zeek, list(file(.x) %>% 
      jsonlite::stream_in(verbose = FALSE) %>%
      as_tibble()) %>% 
        set_names(tools::file_path_sans_ext(basename(.x)))
    ) ->> zeek
  })

str(zeek, 1)
## List of 7
##  $ conn         : tibble [97 × 18] (S3: tbl_df/tbl/data.frame)
##  $ dpd          : tibble [1 × 9] (S3: tbl_df/tbl/data.frame)
##  $ files        : tibble [38 × 16] (S3: tbl_df/tbl/data.frame)
##  $ http         : tibble [92 × 24] (S3: tbl_df/tbl/data.frame)
##  $ packet_filter: tibble [1 × 5] (S3: tbl_df/tbl/data.frame)
##  $ sip          : tibble [9 × 23] (S3: tbl_df/tbl/data.frame)
##  $ weird        : tibble [1 × 9] (S3: tbl_df/tbl/data.frame)

walk2(names(zeek), zeek, ~{
  cat("File:", .x, "\n")
  glimpse(.y)
  cat("\n\n")
})
## File: conn 
## Rows: 97
## Columns: 18
## $ ts            <dbl> 1272737631, 1272737581, 1272737669, 1272737669, 12727376…
## $ uid           <chr> "Cb0OAQ1eC0ZhQTEKNl", "C2s0IU2SZFGVlZyH43", "CcEeLRD3cca…
## $ id.orig_h     <chr> "172.25.105.43", "172.25.105.43", "172.25.105.43", "172.…
## $ id.orig_p     <int> 57086, 5060, 57087, 57088, 57089, 57090, 57091, 57093, 5…
## $ id.resp_h     <chr> "172.25.105.40", "172.25.105.40", "172.25.105.40", "172.…
## $ id.resp_p     <int> 80, 5060, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80…
## $ proto         <chr> "tcp", "udp", "tcp", "tcp", "tcp", "tcp", "tcp", "tcp", …
## $ service       <chr> "http", "sip", "http", "http", "http", "http", "http", "…
## $ duration      <dbl> 0.0180180073, 0.0003528595, 0.0245900154, 0.0740420818, …
## $ orig_bytes    <int> 502, 428, 380, 385, 476, 519, 520, 553, 558, 566, 566, 5…
## $ resp_bytes    <int> 720, 518, 231, 12233, 720, 539, 17499, 144, 144, 144, 14…
## $ conn_state    <chr> "SF", "SF", "SF", "SF", "SF", "SF", "SF", "SF", "SF", "S…
## $ missed_bytes  <int> 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,…
## $ history       <chr> "ShADadfF", "Dd", "ShADadfF", "ShADadfF", "ShADadfF", "S…
## $ orig_pkts     <int> 5, 1, 5, 12, 5, 6, 16, 6, 6, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 6, 5, …
## $ orig_ip_bytes <int> 770, 456, 648, 1017, 744, 839, 1360, 873, 878, 834, 834,…
## $ resp_pkts     <int> 5, 1, 5, 12, 5, 5, 16, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, …
## $ resp_ip_bytes <int> 988, 546, 499, 12865, 988, 807, 18339, 412, 412, 412, 41…
## 
## 
## File: dpd 
## Rows: 1
## Columns: 9
## $ ts             <dbl> 1272737798
## $ uid            <chr> "CADvMziC96POynR2e"
## $ id.orig_h      <chr> "172.25.105.3"
## $ id.orig_p      <int> 43204
## $ id.resp_h      <chr> "172.25.105.40"
## $ id.resp_p      <int> 5060
## $ proto          <chr> "udp"
## $ analyzer       <chr> "SIP"
## $ failure_reason <chr> "Binpac exception: binpac exception: string mismatch at…
## 
## 
## File: files 
## Rows: 38
## Columns: 16
## $ ts             <dbl> 1272737631, 1272737669, 1272737676, 1272737688, 1272737…
## $ fuid           <chr> "FRnb7P5EDeZE4Y3z4", "FOT2gC2yLxjfMCuE5f", "FmUCuA3dzcS…
## $ tx_hosts       <list> "172.25.105.40", "172.25.105.40", "172.25.105.40", "17…
## $ rx_hosts       <list> "172.25.105.43", "172.25.105.43", "172.25.105.43", "17…
## $ conn_uids      <list> "Cb0OAQ1eC0ZhQTEKNl", "CFfYtA0DqqrJk4gI5", "CHN4qA4UUH…
## $ source         <chr> "HTTP", "HTTP", "HTTP", "HTTP", "HTTP", "HTTP", "HTTP",…
## $ depth          <int> 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0…
## $ analyzers      <list> [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], []…
## $ mime_type      <chr> "text/html", "text/html", "text/html", "text/html", "te…
## $ duration       <dbl> 0.000000e+00, 8.920908e-03, 0.000000e+00, 0.000000e+00,…
## $ is_orig        <lgl> FALSE, FALSE, FALSE, FALSE, FALSE, TRUE, FALSE, FALSE, …
## $ seen_bytes     <int> 479, 11819, 479, 313, 17076, 55, 50, 30037, 31608, 1803…
## $ total_bytes    <int> 479, NA, 479, 313, NA, 55, 50, NA, NA, NA, 58, 313, 50,…
## $ missing_bytes  <int> 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0…
## $ overflow_bytes <int> 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0…
## $ timedout       <lgl> FALSE, FALSE, FALSE, FALSE, FALSE, FALSE, FALSE, FALSE,…
## 
## 
## File: http 
## Rows: 92
## Columns: 24
## $ ts                <dbl> 1272737631, 1272737669, 1272737669, 1272737676, 1272…
## $ uid               <chr> "Cb0OAQ1eC0ZhQTEKNl", "CcEeLRD3cca3j4QGh", "CFfYtA0D…
## $ id.orig_h         <chr> "172.25.105.43", "172.25.105.43", "172.25.105.43", "…
## $ id.orig_p         <int> 57086, 57087, 57088, 57089, 57090, 57091, 57093, 570…
## $ id.resp_h         <chr> "172.25.105.40", "172.25.105.40", "172.25.105.40", "…
## $ id.resp_p         <int> 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, …
## $ trans_depth       <int> 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1…
## $ method            <chr> "GET", "GET", "GET", "GET", "GET", "GET", "GET", "GE…
## $ host              <chr> "172.25.105.40", "172.25.105.40", "172.25.105.40", "…
## $ uri               <chr> "/maint", "/", "/user/", "/maint", "/maint", "/maint…
## $ referrer          <chr> "http://172.25.105.40/user/", NA, NA, "http://172.25…
## $ version           <chr> "1.1", "1.1", "1.1", "1.1", "1.1", "1.1", "1.1", "1.…
## $ user_agent        <chr> "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; U; Linux i686; en-US; rv:1.9.1.9)…
## $ request_body_len  <int> 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0…
## $ response_body_len <int> 479, 0, 11819, 479, 313, 17076, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,…
## $ status_code       <int> 401, 302, 200, 401, 301, 200, 304, 304, 304, 304, 30…
## $ status_msg        <chr> "Authorization Required", "Found", "OK", "Authorizat…
## $ tags              <list> [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [],…
## $ resp_fuids        <list> "FRnb7P5EDeZE4Y3z4", <NULL>, "FOT2gC2yLxjfMCuE5f", …
## $ resp_mime_types   <list> "text/html", <NULL>, "text/html", "text/html", "tex…
## $ username          <chr> NA, NA, NA, NA, "maint", "maint", "maint", "maint", …
## $ password          <chr> NA, NA, NA, NA, "password", "password", "password", …
## $ orig_fuids        <list> <NULL>, <NULL>, <NULL>, <NULL>, <NULL>, <NULL>, <NU…
## $ orig_mime_types   <list> <NULL>, <NULL>, <NULL>, <NULL>, <NULL>, <NULL>, <NU…
## 
## 
## File: packet_filter 
## Rows: 1
## Columns: 5
## $ ts      <dbl> 1627151196
## $ node    <chr> "zeek"
## $ filter  <chr> "ip or not ip"
## $ init    <lgl> TRUE
## $ success <lgl> TRUE
## 
## 
## File: sip 
## Rows: 9
## Columns: 23
## $ ts                <dbl> 1272737581, 1272737768, 1272737768, 1272737768, 1272…
## $ uid               <chr> "C2s0IU2SZFGVlZyH43", "CADvMziC96POynR2e", "CADvMziC…
## $ id.orig_h         <chr> "172.25.105.43", "172.25.105.3", "172.25.105.3", "17…
## $ id.orig_p         <int> 5060, 43204, 43204, 43204, 43204, 43204, 43204, 4320…
## $ id.resp_h         <chr> "172.25.105.40", "172.25.105.40", "172.25.105.40", "…
## $ id.resp_p         <int> 5060, 5060, 5060, 5060, 5060, 5060, 5060, 5060, 5060
## $ trans_depth       <int> 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0
## $ method            <chr> "OPTIONS", "REGISTER", "REGISTER", "SUBSCRIBE", "SUB…
## $ uri               <chr> "sip:[email protected]", "sip:172.25.105.40", "sip:1…
## $ request_from      <chr> "\"sipvicious\"<sip:[email protected]>", "<sip:[email protected]…
## $ request_to        <chr> "\"sipvicious\"<sip:[email protected]>", "<sip:[email protected]…
## $ response_from     <chr> "\"sipvicious\"<sip:[email protected]>", "<sip:[email protected]…
## $ response_to       <chr> "\"sipvicious\"<sip:[email protected]>;tag=as18cdb0c9", "<…
## $ call_id           <chr> "61127078793469957194131", "MzEwMmYyYWRiYTUxYTBhODY3…
## $ seq               <chr> "1 OPTIONS", "1 REGISTER", "2 REGISTER", "1 SUBSCRIB…
## $ request_path      <list> "SIP/2.0/UDP 127.0.1.1:5060", "SIP/2.0/UDP 172.25.10…
## $ response_path     <list> "SIP/2.0/UDP 127.0.1.1:5060", "SIP/2.0/UDP 172.25.10…
## $ user_agent        <chr> "UNfriendly-scanner - for demo purposes", "X-Lite B…
## $ status_code       <int> 200, 401, 200, 401, 404, 401, 100, 200, NA
## $ status_msg        <chr> "OK", "Unauthorized", "OK", "Unauthorized", "Not fo…
## $ request_body_len  <int> 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 264, 264, 264, 0
## $ response_body_len <int> 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 302, NA
## $ content_type      <chr> NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, "application/sdp", NA
## 
## 
## File: weird 
## Rows: 1
## Columns: 9
## $ ts        <dbl> 1272737805
## $ id.orig_h <chr> "172.25.105.3"
## $ id.orig_p <int> 0
## $ id.resp_h <chr> "172.25.105.40"
## $ id.resp_p <int> 0
## $ name      <chr> "truncated_IPv6"
## $ notice    <lgl> FALSE
## $ peer      <chr> "zeek"
## $ source    <chr> "IP"

Process Packet Summary

We won’t process the big JSON file tshark generated for us util we really have to, but we can read in the packet summary table now:

packet_cols <- c("packet_num", "ts", "src", "discard", "dst", "proto", "length", "info")

read_tsv(
  file = "voip-packets.tsv",
  col_names = packet_cols,
  col_types = "ddccccdc"
) %>%
  select(-discard) -> packets

packets
## # A tibble: 4,447 x 7
##    packet_num       ts src      dst     proto length info                       
##         <dbl>    <dbl> <chr>    <chr>   <chr>  <dbl> <chr>                      
##  1          1  0       172.25.… 172.25… SIP      470 Request: OPTIONS sip:[email protected]…
##  2          2  3.53e-4 172.25.… 172.25… SIP      560 Status: 200 OK |           
##  3          3  5.03e+1 172.25.… 172.25… TCP       74 57086 → 80 [SYN] Seq=0 Win…
##  4          4  5.03e+1 172.25.… 172.25… TCP       74 80 → 57086 [SYN, ACK] Seq=…
##  5          5  5.03e+1 172.25.… 172.25… TCP       66 57086 → 80 [ACK] Seq=1 Ack…
##  6          6  5.03e+1 172.25.… 172.25… HTTP     568 GET /maint HTTP/1.1        
##  7          7  5.03e+1 172.25.… 172.25… TCP       66 80 → 57086 [ACK] Seq=1 Ack…
##  8          8  5.03e+1 172.25.… 172.25… HTTP     786 HTTP/1.1 401 Authorization…
##  9          9  5.03e+1 172.25.… 172.25… TCP       66 80 → 57086 [FIN, ACK] Seq=…
## 10         10  5.03e+1 172.25.… 172.25… TCP       66 57086 → 80 [ACK] Seq=503 A…
## # … with 4,437 more rows

glimpse(packets)
## Rows: 4,447
## Columns: 7
## $ packet_num <dbl> 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, …
## $ ts         <dbl> 0.000000, 0.000353, 50.317176, 50.317365, 50.320071, 50.329…
## $ src        <chr> "172.25.105.43", "172.25.105.40", "172.25.105.43", "172.25.…
## $ dst        <chr> "172.25.105.40", "172.25.105.43", "172.25.105.40", "172.25.…
## $ proto      <chr> "SIP", "SIP", "TCP", "TCP", "TCP", "HTTP", "TCP", "HTTP", "…
## $ length     <dbl> 470, 560, 74, 74, 66, 568, 66, 786, 66, 66, 66, 66, 74, 74,…
## $ info       <chr> "Request: OPTIONS sip:[email protected] |", "Status: 200 OK…

What is the transport protocol being used?

SIP can use TCP or UDP and which transport it uses will be specified in the Via: header. Let’s take a look:

head(sip_log_parsed$via)
## [1] "SIP/2.0/UDP 127.0.0.1:5061;branch=z9hG4bK-2159139916;rport"
## [2] "SIP/2.0/UDP 127.0.0.1:5087;branch=z9hG4bK-1189344537;rport"
## [3] "SIP/2.0/UDP 127.0.0.1:5066;branch=z9hG4bK-2119091576;rport"
## [4] "SIP/2.0/UDP 127.0.0.1:5087;branch=z9hG4bK-3226446220;rport"
## [5] "SIP/2.0/UDP 127.0.0.1:5087;branch=z9hG4bK-1330901245;rport"
## [6] "SIP/2.0/UDP 127.0.0.1:5087;branch=z9hG4bK-945386205;rport"

Are they all UDP? We can find out by performing some light processing
on the via column:

sip_log_parsed %>% 
  select(via) %>% 
  mutate(
    transport = stri_match_first_regex(via, "^([^[:space:]]+)")[,2]
  ) %>% 
  count(transport, sort=TRUE)
## # A tibble: 1 x 2
##   transport       n
##   <chr>       <int>
## 1 SIP/2.0/UDP  4266

Looks like they’re all UDP. Question 1: ✅

The attacker used a bunch of scanning tools that belong to the same suite. Provide the name of the suite.

Don’t you, now, wish you had listen to your parents when they were telling you about the facts of SIP life when you were a wee pup?

We’ll stick with the SIP log to answer this one and peek back at the RFC to see that there’s a “User-Agent:” field which contains information about the client originating the request. Most scanners written by defenders identify themselves in User-Agent fields when those fields are available in a protocol exchange, and a large percentage of naive malicious folks are too daft to change this value (or leave it default to make you think they’re not behaving badly).

If you are a regular visitor to SIP land, you likely know the common SIP scanning tools. These are a few:

  • Nmap’s SIP library
  • Mr.SIP, a “SIP-Based Audit and Attack Tool”
  • SIPVicious, a “set of security tools that can be used to audit SIP based VoIP systems”
  • Sippts, a “set of tools to audit SIP based VoIP Systems”

(There are many more.)

Let’s see what user-agent was used in this log extract:

count(sip_log_parsed, user_agent, sort=TRUE)
## # A tibble: 3 x 2
##   user_agent           n
##   <chr>            <int>
## 1 friendly-scanner  4248
## 2 Zoiper rev.6751     14
## 3 <NA>                 4

The overwhelming majority are friendly-scanner. Let’s look at a few of those log entries:

sip_log_parsed %>% 
  filter(
    user_agent == "friendly-scanner"
  ) %>% 
  glimpse()
## Rows: 4,248
## Columns: 18
## $ via            <chr> "SIP/2.0/UDP 127.0.0.1:5061;branch=z9hG4bK-2159139916;r…
## $ content_length <chr> "0", "0", "0", "0", "0", "0", "0", "0", "0", "0", "0", …
## $ from           <chr> "\"sipvicious\"<sip:[email protected]>; tag=X_removed", "\"34…
## $ accept         <chr> "application/sdp", "application/sdp", "application/sdp"…
## $ user_agent     <chr> "friendly-scanner", "friendly-scanner", "friendly-scann…
## $ to             <chr> "\"sipvicious\"<sip:[email protected]>", "\"3428948518\"<sip:…
## $ contact        <chr> "sip:[email protected]:5061", "sip:[email protected]…
## $ cseq           <chr> "1 OPTIONS", "1 REGISTER", "1 REGISTER", "1 REGISTER", …
## $ source         <chr> "210.184.X.Y:1083", "210.184.X.Y:4956", "210.184.X.Y:51…
## $ datetime       <chr> "2010-05-02 01:43:05.606584", "2010-05-02 01:43:12.4888…
## $ request        <chr> "OPTIONS sip:[email protected] SIP/2.0", "REGIST…
## $ contents       <chr> "Call-ID: 845752980453913316694142\nMax-Forwards: 70", …
## $ call_id        <chr> NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA,…
## $ max_forwards   <chr> NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA,…
## $ expires        <chr> NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA,…
## $ allow          <chr> NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA,…
## $ authorization  <chr> NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA,…
## $ content_type   <chr> NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA,…

Those from and to fields have an interesting name in them: “sipviscious”. You’ve seen that before, right at the beginning of this section.

Let’s do a quick check over at the SIPvicious repo just to make sure.

count(sip_log_parsed, user_agent)
## # A tibble: 3 x 2
##   user_agent           n
##   <chr>            <int>
## 1 friendly-scanner  4248
## 2 Zoiper rev.6751     14
## 3 <NA>                 4

“What is the User-Agent of the victim system?”

We only have partial data in the text log so we’ll have to look elsewhere (the PCAP) for this information. The “victim” is whatever was the target of a this SIP-based attack and we can look for SIP messages, user agents, and associated IPs in the PCAP thanks to tshark’s rich SIP filter library:

system("tshark -Q -T fields -e ip.src -e ip.dst -e sip.User-Agent -r src/Voip-trace.pcap 'sip.User-Agent'")

That first exchange is all we really need. We see our rude poker talking to 172.25.105.40 and it responding right after.

Which tool was only used against the following extensions: 100, 101, 102, 103, and 111?

The question is a tad vague and is assuming — since we now know the SIPvicious suite was used — that we also know to provide the name of the Python script in SIPvicious that was used. There are five tools:

The svcrash tool is something defenders can use to help curtail scanner activity. We can cross that off the list. The svreport tool is for working with data generated by svmap, svwar and/or svcrack. One more crossed off. We also know that the attacker scanned the SIP network looking for nodes, which means svmap and svwar are likely not exclusive tool to the target extensions. (We technically have enough information right now to answer the question especially if you look carefully at the answer box on the site but that’s cheating).

The SIP request line and header field like To: destination information in the form of a SIP URI. Since we only care about the extension component of the URI for this question, we can use a regular expression to isolate them.

Back to the SIP log to see if we can find the identified extensions. We’ll also process the “From:” header just in case we need it.

sip_log_parsed %>% 
  mutate_at(
    vars(request, from, to),
    ~stri_match_first_regex(.x, "sip:([^@]+)@")[,2]
  ) %>% 
  select(request, from, to)
## # A tibble: 4,266 x 3
##    request    from       to        
##    <chr>      <chr>      <chr>     
##  1 100        100        100       
##  2 3428948518 3428948518 3428948518
##  3 1729240413 1729240413 1729240413
##  4 admin      admin      admin     
##  5 info       info       info      
##  6 test       test       test      
##  7 postmaster postmaster postmaster
##  8 sales      sales      sales     
##  9 service    service    service   
## 10 support    support    support   
## # … with 4,256 more rows

That worked! We can now see what friendly-scanner attempted to authenticate only to our targets:

sip_log_parsed %>%
  mutate_at(
    vars(request, from, to),
    ~stri_match_first_regex(.x, "sip:([^@]+)@")[,2]
  ) %>% 
  filter(
    user_agent == "friendly-scanner",
    stri_detect_fixed(contents, "Authorization")
  ) %>% 
  distinct(to)
## # A tibble: 4 x 1
##   to   
##   <chr>
## 1 102  
## 2 103  
## 3 101  
## 4 111

While we’re missing 100 that’s likely due to it not requiring authentication (svcrack will REGISTER first to determine if a target requires authentication and not send cracking requests if it doesn’t).

Which extension on the honeypot does NOT require authentication?

We know this due to what we found in the previous question. Extension 100 does not require authentication.

How many extensions were scanned in total?

We just need to count the distinct to’s where the user agent is the scanner:

sip_log_parsed %>% 
  mutate_at(
    vars(request, from, to),
    ~stri_match_first_regex(.x, "sip:([^@]+)@")[,2]
  ) %>% 
  filter(
    user_agent == "friendly-scanner"
  ) %>% 
  distinct(to)
## # A tibble: 2,652 x 1
##    to        
##    <chr>     
##  1 100       
##  2 3428948518
##  3 1729240413
##  4 admin     
##  5 info      
##  6 test      
##  7 postmaster
##  8 sales     
##  9 service   
## 10 support   
## # … with 2,642 more rows

There is a trace for a real SIP client. What is the corresponding user-agent? (two words, once space in between)

We only need to look for user agent’s that aren’t our scanner:

sip_log_parsed %>% 
  filter(
    user_agent != "friendly-scanner"
  ) %>% 
  count(user_agent)
## # A tibble: 1 x 2
##   user_agent          n
##   <chr>           <int>
## 1 Zoiper rev.6751    14

Multiple real-world phone numbers were dialed. Provide the first 11 digits of the number dialed from extension 101?

Calls are INVITE” requests

sip_log_parsed %>% 
  mutate_at(
    vars(from, to),
    ~stri_match_first_regex(.x, "sip:([^@]+)@")[,2]
  ) %>% 
  filter(
    from == 101,
    stri_detect_regex(cseq, "INVITE")
  ) %>% 
  select(to) 
## # A tibble: 3 x 1
##   to              
##   <chr>           
## 1 900114382089XXXX
## 2 00112322228XXXX 
## 3 00112524021XXXX

The challenge answer box provides hint to what number they want. I’m not sure but I suspect it may be randomized, so you’ll have to match the pattern they expect with the correct digits above.

What are the default credentials used in the attempted basic authentication? (format is username:password)

This question wants us to look at the HTTP requests that require authentication. We can get he credentials info from the zeek$http log:

zeek$http %>% 
  distinct(username, password)
## # A tibble: 2 x 2
##   username password
##   <chr>    <chr>   
## 1 <NA>     <NA>    
## 2 maint    password

Which codec does the RTP stream use? (3 words, 2 spaces in between)

“Codec” refers to the algorithm used to encode/decode an audio or video stream. The RTP RFC uses the term “payload type” to refer to this during exchanges and even has a link to RFC 3551 which provides further information on these encodings.

The summary packet table that tshark generates helpfully provides summary info for RTP packets and part of that info is PT=… which indicates the payload type.

packets %>% 
  filter(proto == "RTP") %>% 
  select(info)
## # A tibble: 2,988 x 1
##    info                                                       
##    <chr>                                                      
##  1 PT=ITU-T G.711 PCMU, SSRC=0xA254E017, Seq=6402, Time=126160
##  2 PT=ITU-T G.711 PCMU, SSRC=0xA254E017, Seq=6403, Time=126320
##  3 PT=ITU-T G.711 PCMU, SSRC=0xA254E017, Seq=6404, Time=126480
##  4 PT=ITU-T G.711 PCMU, SSRC=0xA254E017, Seq=6405, Time=126640
##  5 PT=ITU-T G.711 PCMU, SSRC=0xA254E017, Seq=6406, Time=126800
##  6 PT=ITU-T G.711 PCMU, SSRC=0xA254E017, Seq=6407, Time=126960
##  7 PT=ITU-T G.711 PCMU, SSRC=0xA254E017, Seq=6408, Time=127120
##  8 PT=ITU-T G.711 PCMU, SSRC=0xA254E017, Seq=6409, Time=127280
##  9 PT=ITU-T G.711 PCMU, SSRC=0xA254E017, Seq=6410, Time=127440
## 10 PT=ITU-T G.711 PCMU, SSRC=0xA254E017, Seq=6411, Time=127600
## # … with 2,978 more rows

How long is the sampling time (in milliseconds)?

  • 1 Hz = 1,000 ms
  • 1 ms = 1,000 Hz

(1/8000) * 1000

What was the password for the account with username 555?

We don’t really need to use external programs for this but it will sure go quite a bit faster if we do. While the original reference page for sipdump and sipcrack is defunct, you can visit that link to go to the Wayback machine’s capture of it. It will help if you have a linux system handy (so Docker to the rescue for macOS and Windows folks) since the following answer details are running on Ubunbu.

This question is taking advantage of the fact that the default authentication method for SIP is extremely weak. The process uses an MD5 challenge/response, and if an attacker can capture call traffic it is possible to brute force the password offline (which is what we’ll use sipcrack for).

You can install them via sudo apt install sipcrack.

We’ll first generate a dump of the authentication attempts with sipdump:

system("sipdump -p src/Voip-trace.pcap sip.dump", intern=TRUE)
##  [1] ""                                                               
##  [2] "SIPdump 0.2 "                                                   
##  [3] "---------------------------------------"                        
##  [4] ""                                                               
##  [5] "* Using pcap file 'src/Voip-trace.pcap' for sniffing"           
##  [6] "* Starting to sniff with packet filter 'tcp or udp'"            
##  [7] ""                                                               
##  [8] "* Dumped login from 172.25.105.40 -> 172.25.105.3 (User: '555')"
##  [9] "* Dumped login from 172.25.105.40 -> 172.25.105.3 (User: '555')"
## [10] "* Dumped login from 172.25.105.40 -> 172.25.105.3 (User: '555')"
## [11] ""                                                               
## [12] "* Exiting, sniffed 3 logins"

cat(readLines("sip.dump"), sep="\n")
## 172.25.105.3"172.25.105.40"555"asterisk"REGISTER"sip:172.25.105.40"4787f7ce""""MD5"1ac95ce17e1f0230751cf1fd3d278320
## 172.25.105.3"172.25.105.40"555"asterisk"INVITE"sip:[email protected]"70fbfdae""""MD5"aa533f6efa2b2abac675c1ee6cbde327
## 172.25.105.3"172.25.105.40"555"asterisk"BYE"sip:[email protected]"70fbfdae""""MD5"0b306e9db1f819dd824acf3227b60e07

It saves the IPs, caller, authentication realm, method, nonce and hash which will all be fed into the sipcrack.

We know from the placeholder answer text that the “password” is 4 characters, and this is the land of telephony, so we can make an assumption that it is really 4 digits. sipcrack needs a file of passwords to try, so We’ll let R make a randomized file of 4 digit pins for us:

cat(sprintf("%04d", sample(0:9999)), file = "4-digits", sep="\n")

We only have authenticaton packets for 555 so we can automate what would normally be an interactive process:

cat(system('echo "1" | sipcrack -w 4-digits sip.dump', intern=TRUE), sep="\n")
## 
## SIPcrack 0.2 
## ----------------------------------------
## 
## * Found Accounts:
## 
## Num  Server      Client      User    Hash|Password
## 
## 1    172.25.105.3    172.25.105.40   555 1ac95ce17e1f0230751cf1fd3d278320
## 2    172.25.105.3    172.25.105.40   555 aa533f6efa2b2abac675c1ee6cbde327
## 3    172.25.105.3    172.25.105.40   555 0b306e9db1f819dd824acf3227b60e07
## 
## * Select which entry to crack (1 - 3): 
## * Generating static MD5 hash... c3e0f1664fde9fbc75a7cbd341877875
## * Loaded wordlist: '4-digits'
## * Starting bruteforce against user '555' (MD5: '1ac95ce17e1f0230751cf1fd3d278320')
## * Tried 8904 passwords in 0 seconds
## 
## * Found password: '1234'
## * Updating dump file 'sip.dump'... done

Which RTP packet header field can be used to reorder out of sync RTP packets in the correct sequence?

Just reading involved here: 5.1 RTP Fixed Header Fields.

The trace includes a secret hidden message. Can you hear it?

We could command line this one but honestly Wireshark has a pretty keen audio player. Fire it up, open up the PCAP, go to the “Telephony” menu, pick SIP and play the streams.

To leave a comment for the author, please follow the link and comment on their blog: R – rud.is.

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