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## Issues with the use of telescopes Magnification

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**Issues with the use of telescopes**Magnification Magnification determines how much larger the image is as compared to the size of the source of the light (the object) fo Magnification = fe Where fo is the focal length of the objective fe is the focal length of the eyepiece**Issues with the use of telescopes**Magnification fo Magnification = fe A cheap telescope has an objective focal length of 600 mm, an objective diameter of 0.05 m and an eyepiece focal length of 20 mm. What is the magnification of this telescope? Given fo = 600 mm fe = 20 mm D = 0.05 m M = 600 mm / 20 mm = 30**Issues with the use of telescopes**Magnification fo Magnification = fe A cheap telescope has an objective focal length of 600 mm , an objective diameter of 0.05 m and an eyepiece focal length of 5 mm. What is the magnification of this telescope? Given fo = 600 mm fe = 5 mm D = 0.05 m M = 600 mm / 5 mm = 120**Issues with the use of telescopes**Magnification fo Magnification = fe An expensive telescope has an objective focal length of 2400 mm , an objective diameter of 0.2 m and an eyepiece focal length of 20 mm. What is the magnification of this telescope? Given fo = 2400 mm fe = 20 mm D = 0.2 m M = 2400 mm / 20 mm = 120**Issues with the use of telescopes**Magnification Question: Is the cheap telescope with a 5 mm eyepiece as good as the expensive telescope with a 20 mm eyepiece? What do you think?**Issues with the use of telescopes**Resolution More important (possibly more important) than magnification is resolution. Resolution – the property of an instrument to identify (resolve) small details. The smallest angular size identifiable by an instrument is given by min = .25 D Where is the wavelength of the EM waves being collected in m (1 m = 10-6 m) D is the diameter of the aperture (the opening which collects the wave) in meters The calculated value of will be in seconds of arc (arc seconds)**Issues with the use of telescopes**Resolution min is called the diffraction limited resolution of the telescope**Issues with the use of telescopes**Resolution (inm ) min(in arc sec) = .25 D (in m) For the naked eye, Shortest visible wavelength 400 x 10-9 m = .4 m Diameter of the aperture (the pupil) 3 mm = 3 x 10-3 m θmin = (0.25) (0.4 ) / (3 x 10-3 ) ≈ 0.33 arc sec min 33” = .55’ = .0093o The average human eye can resolve object with an angular diameter of about a half a minute.**Issues with the use of telescopes**Resolution (inm ) min(in arc sec) = .25 D (in m) For the Mount Palomar 200 inch optical telescope, Shortest visible wavelength 400 x 10-9 m = .4 m Diameter of the aperture (the objective) = 200 in = 5.08 m θmin = (0.25) (0.4 ) / (5.08 ) ≈ 1.96 x 10-2 arc sec min 1.96 x 10-2 “ = 3.2 x 10-5 ‘ = 5.5 x 10-7 degrees The Mount Palomar telescope can resolve objects about 1700 times smaller than the naked eye**Issues with the use of telescopes**Resolution – The Hubble Space Telescope Hubble works on the same principle as the first reflecting telescope built in the 1600s by Isaac Newton. Light enters the telescope and strikes a concave primary mirror, which acts like a lens to focus the light. The bigger the mirror, the better the image. In Hubble, light from the primary mirror is reflected to a smaller secondary mirror in front of the primary mirror, then back through a hole in the primary to instruments clustered behind the focal plane (where the image is in focus). Mirror sizePrimary mirror: 2.4 m – (94.5 inches) in diameter Secondary mirror: 0.3 m - (12 inches) in diameter Angular resolutionHubble's angular resolution is 0.05 arcsecond. This is the "sharpness" of Hubble's vision. If you could see as well as Hubble, you could stand in New York City and distinguish two fireflies, 1 m (3.3 feet) apart, in San Francisco.**Issues with the use of telescopes**Resolution (inm ) min(in arc sec) = .25 D (in m) If the Mount Palomar 200 inch optical telescope recorded radio waves of wavelength 1 meter, wavelength 1 m = 1 x 106m Diameter of the aperture (the objective) = 200 in = 5.08 m θmin = (0.25) (0.1 x 106 ) / (5.08) ≈ 4.9 x 104 arc sec min 4.9 x 104 “ = 820’ = 13.7o The angular diameter of the moon = 30’ The angular diameter of the Andromeda Galaxy 178’ The Mount Palomar telescope would not be able to resolve these objects It would not be able to “see” the moon !**Issues with the use of telescopes**Resolution (inm ) min(in arc sec) = .25 D (in m) For the National Radio Astronomical Observatory Robert C. Byrd Radio Telescope, wavelength 1 m = 1 x 106m Diameter of the aperture (the objective) = 100 m θmin = (0.25) (1 x 106 ) / (100 ) ≈ 2500 arc sec min 2500” = 41’ = .69o The angular diameter of the moon = 30’ The angular diameter of the Andromeda Galaxy 178’ The NRAO telescope would be able (roughly) to resolve radio sources of these angular diameters**Issues with the use of telescopes**Resolution (inm ) min(in arc sec) = .25 D (in m) For the Arecibo Radio telescope, wavelength 1 x 106m Diameter of the aperture (the objective) = 305 m θmin = (0.25) (1 x 106 ) / (305 ) ≈ 819 arc sec min 819” = 13.7’ = .22o The angular diameter of the moon = 30’ The angular diameter of the Andromeda Galaxy 178’ The Arecibo telescope would easily be able to resolve radio sources of these angular diameters**Issues with the use of telescopes**Magnification Question: Is the cheap telescope with a 5 mm eyepiece as good as the expensive telescope with a 20 mm eyepiece? The magnifications in both cases are the same. However, the diffraction limited resolutions are (using 0.4 μm for the visible wavelength) Θmin,cheap = (0.25) (0.4) / (0.05) = 2 arc sec Θmin,expensive = (0.25) (0.4) / (0.2) = 0.5 arc sec The expensive telescope will resolve objects 4 times smaller than the cheap telescope. In part, the expense of a larger telescope is related to resolution more that magnification.