Visualization of Reading Level Frequency by Congressional Bill Stage

April 15, 2012

(This article was first published on Bommarito Consulting, LLC » r, and kindly contributed to R-bloggers)

style="text-align: justify;">  Here’s a fun example of how you might use title="Updates to data and statistics on Congressional bill complexity" href="">my data on Congressional bill length and complexity.  Imagine you want to understand the empirical distribution of Flesch-Kincaid reading level for Congressional bills and how this distribution is related to bill stage.  A first step might be to visualize this relationship.

style="text-align: justify;"> href=""> class="aligncenter wp-image-636" title="Reading Level, Bill Stage" src="" alt="" width="700" />

style="text-align: justify;">  Based on this visualization, you might infer that engrossed bills tend to have less right-skew and have a lower mean reading level.  The story behind this might be that Senators and Representatives are less likely to accept legislation they do not understand.  To test this, you might run a simple KS test to see if the introduced bill reading levels are greater than engrossed bill reading levels.

> ks.test(introduced, engrossed, alternative="less")

	Two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test

data:  introduced and engrossed
D^- = 0.094, p-value = 0.006299
alternative hypothesis: the CDF of x lies below that of y

Sample source below. />

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