# Estimating the mean and standard deviation from the median and the range

December 3, 2015
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While preparing the data for a meta-analysis, I run into the problem that a few of my sources did not report the outcome of interest as means and standard deviations, but rather as medians and range of values. After looking around, I found this interesting paper which derived (and validated through simple simulations), simple formulas that can be used to convert the median/range into a mean and a variance in a distribution free fashion.  With

• a = min of the data
• b = max of the data
• m = median
• n = size of the sample

the formulas are as follows:

Mean  $\bar{m} = \frac{a+2 m+b}{4} +\frac{a-2 m+b}{4 n}$

Variance  $\frac{1}{n-1} \Big(a^2+m^2+b^2+\frac{n-3}{2} \frac{(a+m)^2+(b+m)^2}{4}-n \bar{m} \Big)$

The following R function will carry out these calculations

f<-function(a,m,b,n)
{
mn<-(a+2*m+b)/4+(a-2*m+b)/(4*n)
s=sqrt((a*a+m*m+b*b+(n-3)*((a+m)^2+(m+b)^2)/8-n*mn*mn)/(n-1))
c(mn,s)
}

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