Case Study: Animation and Others Vizs

June 22, 2016
By

(This article was first published on Jkunst - R category, and kindly contributed to R-bloggers)

This post will be about if we can show some data in other ways to try to
tell more clearly the Oh! Foo! is this rly happening? story.

Time time ago an gif appears showing the change of the global temperatures
over time.

Well, some sites like http://gizmodo.com/ made a reference to this animation
as one-of-the-most-convincing-climate-change-visualization.
Mmmm… ok! A kind of click bait IMHO but at least the title saids visualization :B. But for me the
animation don’t work always. I rembember a quote, sadly I don’t rember the author, maybe/surely was
Alberto Cairo (If you know it please tell me who was):

Animation force the user to compare what they see with what they remember (saw).

If you want it in Yoda’s way:

Other thing I don’t like so much about this spiral is there’are so much data
overlaped at the end of animation hiding information about the speed of increment
in the data.

Data & Packages

We’ll use the data provide by hrbrmstr in his
repo.
Bob Rudis made a beautiful representation of the data via ggplot2 and D3 using a
geom_segment/column range viz.

About the packages. Here we’ll use a lot of dplyr, tidyr, purrr for the data manipulation,
for the colors we’ll use viridis, lastly I’ll use highcharter
for charts

library("highcharter")
library("readr")
library("dplyr")
library("tidyr")
library("lubridate")
library("purrr")
library("viridis")

options(
  highcharter.theme = hc_theme_darkunica(
    chart  = list(
      style = list(fontFamily = "Roboto Condensed"),
      backgroundColor = "#323331"
      ),
    yAxis = list(
      gridLineColor = "#B71C1C",
      labels = list(format = "{value} C", useHTML = TRUE)
    ),
    plotOptions = list(series = list(showInLegend = FALSE))
  )
)

df <- read_csv("https://raw.githubusercontent.com/hrbrmstr/hadcrut/master/data/temps.csv")

df <- df %>% 
  mutate(date = ymd(year_mon),
         tmpstmp = datetime_to_timestamp(date),
         year = year(date),
         month = month(date, label = TRUE),
         color_m = colorize(median, viridis(10, option = "B")),
         color_m = hex_to_rgba(color_m, 0.65))

dfcolyrs <- df %>% 
  group_by(year) %>% 
  summarise(median = median(median)) %>% 
  ungroup() %>% 
  mutate(color_y = colorize(median, viridis(10, option = "B")),
         color_y = hex_to_rgba(color_y, 0.65)) %>% 
  select(-median)

df <- left_join(df, dfcolyrs, by = "year")

The data is ready, let’s go.

year_mon median lower upper year decade month date tmpstmp color_m color_y
1850-01-01 -0.702 -1.102 -0.299 1850 1850 Jan 1850-01-01 -3.79e+12 rgba(2,1,10,0.65) rgba(87,16,107,0.65)
1850-02-01 -0.284 -0.675 0.114 1850 1850 Feb 1850-02-01 -3.78e+12 rgba(107,23,108,0.65) rgba(87,16,107,0.65)
1850-03-01 -0.732 -1.080 -0.383 1850 1850 Mar 1850-03-01 -3.78e+12 rgba(1,0,8,0.65) rgba(87,16,107,0.65)
1850-04-01 -0.570 -0.903 -0.237 1850 1850 Apr 1850-04-01 -3.78e+12 rgba(9,4,26,0.65) rgba(87,16,107,0.65)
1850-05-01 -0.325 -0.662 0.006 1850 1850 May 1850-05-01 -3.78e+12 rgba(84,15,107,0.65) rgba(87,16,107,0.65)
1850-06-01 -0.213 -0.515 0.084 1850 1850 Jun 1850-06-01 -3.77e+12 rgba(148,38,100,0.65) rgba(87,16,107,0.65)

Spiral

First of all let’s try to replicate the chart/gif/animation that’s reason
to write this post. Here we’ll construtct a list of series to use
with hc_add_series_list function.

lsseries <- df %>% 
  group_by(year) %>% 
  do(
    data = .$median,
    color = first(.$color_y)) %>% 
  mutate(name = year) %>% 
  list.parse3()

hc1 <- highchart() %>% 
  hc_chart(polar = TRUE) %>% 
  hc_plotOptions(
    series = list(
      marker = list(enabled = FALSE),
      animation = TRUE,
      pointIntervalUnit = "month")
    ) %>%
  hc_legend(enabled = FALSE) %>% 
  hc_xAxis(type = "datetime", min = 0, max = 365 * 24 * 36e5,
           labels = list(format = "{value:%B}")) %>%
  hc_tooltip(headerFormat = "{point.key}",
             xDateFormat = "%B",
             pointFormat = " {series.name}: {point.y}") %>% 
  hc_add_series_list(lsseries)

hc1

open

Ok! without the animation componet this don’t work so much.

If we want replicate the animation part we can hide all the series
using transparency.

lsseries2 <- df %>% 
  group_by(year) %>% 
  do(
    data = .$median,
    color = "transparent",
    enableMouseTracking = FALSE,
    color2 = first(.$color_y)) %>% 
  mutate(name = year) %>% 
  list.parse3()

Then using a little of javascript we can color each series
one by one with the real color.

hc11 <- highchart() %>% 
  hc_chart(polar = TRUE) %>% 
  hc_plotOptions(series = list(
    marker = list(enabled = FALSE),
    animation = TRUE,
    pointIntervalUnit = "month")) %>%
  hc_legend(enabled = FALSE) %>% 
  hc_title(text = "Animated Spiral") %>% 
  hc_xAxis(type = "datetime", min = 0, max = 365 * 24 * 36e5,
           labels = list(format = "{value:%B}")) %>%
  hc_tooltip(headerFormat = "{point.key}", xDateFormat = "%B",
             pointFormat = " {series.name}: {point.y}") %>% 
  hc_add_series_list(lsseries2) %>% 
  hc_chart(
    events = list(
      load = JS("

function() {
  console.log('ready');
  var duration = 16 * 1000
  var delta = duration/this.series.length;
  var delay = 2000;

  this.series.map(function(e){
    setTimeout(function() {
      e.update({color: e.options.color2, enableMouseTracking: true});
      e.chart.setTitle({text: e.name})
    }, delay)
    delay = delay + delta;
  });

}
                ")
    )
  )

And voila.

hc11

open

You can open the chart in a new window to see the animation effect.

Sesonalplot

We need polar coords here? I don’t know so let’s back
to the euclidean space and see what happened

hc2 <- hc1 %>% 
  hc_chart(polar = FALSE, type = "spline") %>% 
  hc_xAxis(max = (365 - 1) * 24 * 36e5) %>% 
  hc_yAxis(tickPositions = c(-1.5, 0, 1.5, 2))

hc2

open

Nom! A nice colored spaghettis. Not so much clear what happened
across the years.

Heatmap

Here we put the years in xAxis and month in yAxis:

m <- df %>% 
  select(year, month, median) %>% 
  spread(year, median) %>% 
  select(-month) %>% 
  as.matrix() 

rownames(m) <- month.abb

hc3 <- hchart(m) %>% 
  hc_colorAxis(
    stops = color_stops(10, viridis(10, option = "B")),
    min = -1, max = 1
    ) %>% 
  hc_yAxis(
    title = list(text = NULL),
    tickPositions = FALSE,
    labels = list(format = "{value}", useHTML = TRUE)
    )

hc3

open

With the color scale used is not that clear the impact
about the incremet. We can see the series have and increase
but with colors is not so easy to quantify that change.

Line / Time Series

Let’s try now the most simply chart. And let’s represent
the data as a time series.

dsts <- df %>% 
  mutate(name = paste(decade, month)) %>% 
  select(x = tmpstmp, y = median, name)

hc4 <- highchart() %>% 
  hc_xAxis(type = "datetime") %>%
  hc_yAxis(tickPositions = c(-1.5, 0, 1.5, 2)) %>% 
  hc_add_series_df(dsts, name = "Global Temperature",
                   type = "line", color = hex_to_rgba(viridis(10, option = "B")[7]),
                   lineWidth = 1,
                   states = list(hover = list(lineWidth = 1)),
                   shadow = FALSE) 
hc4

open

maybe it’s so simple. What do you think?

Columrange

Finally let’s add the information about the confidence interval and
add the media information using a color same as
hrbrmstr did.

With highcharter it’s easy. Just define the dataframe with x,
low, high and color and add it to a highchart object
with the hc_add_series_df function.

dscr <- df %>% 
  mutate(name = paste(decade, month)) %>% 
  select(x = tmpstmp, low = lower, high = upper, name, color = color_m)

hc5 <- highchart() %>% 
  hc_yAxis(tickPositions = c(-2, 0, 1.5, 2)) %>% 
  hc_xAxis(type = "datetime") %>%
  hc_add_series_df(dscr, name = "Global Temperature",
                   type = "columnrange")

hc5

open

(IMHO) This is a really way to show what we want to say:

  • Via a time series chart it’s wasy compare the past with the
    actual period of time.
  • The color, in particular the last yellowish part, add importance and guide our
    eyes to that part of the chart before to start to compare.

giphy gif source

Do you have other ways to represent this data?

To leave a comment for the author, please follow the link and comment on their blog: Jkunst - R category.

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