Articles by R on Will Hipson

Bayesian Varying Effects Models in R and Stan

June 8, 2020 | 0 Comments

In psychology, we increasingly encounter data that is nested. It is to the point now where any quantitative psychologist worth their salt must know how to analyze multilevel data. A common approach to multilevel modeling is the varying effects approach, where the relation between a predictor and an outcome variable ...
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Visualizing a Markov Chain

March 22, 2020 | 0 Comments

A Markov Chain describes a sequence of states where the probability of transitioning from states depends only the current state. Markov chains are useful in a variety of computer science, mathematics, and probability contexts, also featuring prominently in Bayesian computation as Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Here, we’re going to ...
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An Intuitive Look at Binomial Probability in a Bayesian Context

January 27, 2020 | 0 Comments

Binomial probability is the relatively simple case of estimating the proportion of successes in a series of yes/no trials. The perennial example is estimating the proportion of heads in a series of coin flips where each trial is independent and has possibility of heads or tails. Because of its ...
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Building a Shiny App for Cycling in Ottawa

October 26, 2019 | 0 Comments

This is a different kind of post, but one that I think is kind of fun. I currently live in Ottawa, which for those who don’t know, is the capital city of Canada. For a capital city, it’s fairly small, but it’s increasingly urbanizing (we just got ...
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Bayesian Linear Mixed Models: Random Intercepts, Slopes, and Missing Data

September 4, 2019 | 0 Comments

This past summer, I watched a brilliant lecture series by Richard McElreath on Bayesian statistics. It honestly changed my whole outlook on statistics, so I couldn’t recommend it more (plus, McElreath is an engaging instructor). One of the most compelling cases for using Bayesian statistics is with a collection ...
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Modeling Motivation and Emotion using Feedback Loops

July 30, 2019 | 0 Comments

If you’re anything like me, you probably set a lot of goals. Whether it’s to finish a paper by the end of the summer or to spend more time with friends and family, goals are what help motivate us to do something. Goals are also intimately tied to ...
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A Model and Simulation of Emotion Dynamics

June 25, 2019 | 0 Comments

Emotion dynamics is the study of how emotions change over time. Sometimes our feelings are quite stable, but other times capricious. Measuring and predicting these patterns for different people is somewhat of a Holy Grail for emotion researchers. In particular, some researchers are aspiring to discover mathematical laws that capture ...
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Quick Example of Latent Profile Analysis in R

April 19, 2019 | 0 Comments

Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) tries to identify clusters of individuals (i.e., latent profiles) based on responses to a series of continuous variables (i.e., indicators). LPA assumes that there are unobserved latent profiles that generate patterns of responses on indicator items. Here, I will go through a quick example ...
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Network Analysis of Emotions

March 17, 2019 | 0 Comments

In this month’s post, I set out to create a visual network of emotions. Emotion Dynamics tells us that different emotions are highly interconnected, such that one emotion morphs into another and so on. I’ll be using a large dataset from an original study published in PLOS ONE ...
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The Face of (Dis)Agreement – Intraclass Correlations

February 3, 2019 | 0 Comments

I was recently introduced to Google Dataset Search, an extension that searches for open access datasets. There I stumbled upon this dataset on childrens’ and adult’s ratings of facial expressions. The data comes from a published article by Vesker et al. (2018). Briefly, this study involved having adults and 9-year-old ...
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Plotting the Affect Circumplex in R

January 14, 2019 | 0 Comments

I’m a strong adherent to the circumplex model of emotions introduced by James Russell in the late 1980s. Russell argued that all emotional experience can be boiled down to two dimensions: valence and arousal, with valence being how positive or negative you feel and arousal being how sluggish or ...
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A New Way to Handle Multivariate Outliers

January 9, 2019 | 0 Comments

Psychologists often have a standoffish attitude toward outliers. Developmental psychologists, in particular, seem uncomfortable with removing cases because of the challenges inherent in obtaining data in the first place. However, the process of identifying and (sometimes) removing outliers is not a witch hunt to cleanse datasets of “weird” cases; rather, ...
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