Articles by R on Will Hipson

Bayesian Varying Effects Models in R and Stan

June 8, 2020 | R on Will Hipson

In psychology, we increasingly encounter data that is nested. It is to the point now where any quantitative psychologist worth their salt must know how to analyze multilevel data. A common approach to multilevel modeling is the varying effects approach, where the relation between a predictor and an outcome variable ...
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Visualizing a Markov Chain

March 22, 2020 | R on Will Hipson

A Markov Chain describes a sequence of states where the probability of transitioning from states depends only the current state. Markov chains are useful in a variety of computer science, mathematics, and probability contexts, also featuring prominently in Bayesian computation as Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Here, we’re going to ...
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A Model and Simulation of Emotion Dynamics

June 25, 2019 | R on Will Hipson

Emotion dynamics is the study of how emotions change over time. Sometimes our feelings are quite stable, but other times capricious. Measuring and predicting these patterns for different people is somewhat of a Holy Grail for emotion researchers. In particular, some researchers are aspiring to discover mathematical laws that capture ... [Read more...]

Quick Example of Latent Profile Analysis in R

April 19, 2019 | R on Will Hipson

Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) tries to identify clusters of individuals (i.e., latent profiles) based on responses to a series of continuous variables (i.e., indicators). LPA assumes that there are unobserved latent profiles that generate patterns of responses on indicator items. Here, I will go through a quick example ...
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Network Analysis of Emotions

March 17, 2019 | R on Will Hipson

In this month’s post, I set out to create a visual network of emotions. Emotion Dynamics tells us that different emotions are highly interconnected, such that one emotion morphs into another and so on. I’ll be using a large dataset from an original study published in PLOS ONE ...
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The Face of (Dis)Agreement – Intraclass Correlations

February 3, 2019 | R on Will Hipson

I was recently introduced to Google Dataset Search, an extension that searches for open access datasets. There I stumbled upon this dataset on childrens’ and adult’s ratings of facial expressions. The data comes from a published article by Vesker et al. (2018). Briefly, this study involved having adults and 9-year-old ...
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Plotting the Affect Circumplex in R

January 14, 2019 | R on Will Hipson

I’m a strong adherent to the circumplex model of emotions introduced by James Russell in the late 1980s. Russell argued that all emotional experience can be boiled down to two dimensions: valence and arousal, with valence being how positive or negative you feel and arousal being how sluggish or ...
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A New Way to Handle Multivariate Outliers

January 9, 2019 | R on Will Hipson

Psychologists often have a standoffish attitude toward outliers. Developmental psychologists, in particular, seem uncomfortable with removing cases because of the challenges inherent in obtaining data in the first place. However, the process of identifying and (sometimes) removing outliers is not a witch hunt to cleanse datasets of “weird” cases; rather, ...
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