GHCN version 4 beta is available. Using the GHS population dataset the ~27000 GHCNV4 sites were filtered to collect only rural stations. GHS combines two datasets, a 10meter built surface satellite dataset and a human population dataset. https://ghsl.jrc.ec.europa.eu/. using site locations the population within 10km of the site was extracted. two cases were considered: A case where rual was defined as less than 16 people per sq km, and a case where there were less than 7 people per sq km, this filtering led to two subsets of the ~27K ghcnv4 stations. One with 15K stations and a second with 12K stations. The temperature data used was the unadjusted monthly T Avg.