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Welcome back to the world of purrr! Last time (about a year ago), we spun a metaphorical yarn about the wonders of purrr in R. Today, we're rolling up our sleeves and diving into a hands-on tutorial. We're going to explore how purrr makes working with lists and vectors a breeze, transforming and manipulating them like a data wizard.

With purrr, you can apply functions to each element of a list or vector, manipulate them, check conditions, and so much more. It's all about making your data dance to your commands with elegance and efficiency. Ready to unleash some functional magic?

### Are map Functions Like apply Functions?

You might be wondering, “Aren’t map functions just fancy versions of apply functions?” It's a fair question! Both map and apply functions help you apply a function to elements in a data structure, but purrr takes it to a whole new level.

Here’s why purrr and its map functions are worth your attention:

• Consistency: purrr functions have a consistent naming scheme, making them easier to learn and remember.
• Type Safety: map functions in purrr return outputs of consistent types, reducing unexpected errors.
• Integration: Seamlessly integrate with other tidyverse packages, making your data wrangling pipeline smoother.

Let’s see a quick comparison:

library(tidyverse)

# Using lapply (base R)
numbers <- list(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
squared_lapply <- lapply(numbers, function(x) x^2)

# Using map (purrr)
squared_map <- map(numbers, ~ .x^2)

print(squared_lapply)

[[1]]
[1] 1

[[2]]
[1] 4

[[3]]
[1] 9

[[4]]
[1] 16

[[5]]
[1] 25

print(squared_map)

[[1]]
[1] 1

[[2]]
[1] 4

[[3]]
[1] 9

[[4]]
[1] 16

[[5]]
[1] 25

Both do the same thing, but purrr’s map function is more readable and concise, especially when paired with the tidyverse syntax.

Here’s another example with a built-in dataset:

# Using lapply with a built-in dataset
iris_split <- split(iris, iris\$Species)
mean_sepal_length_lapply <- lapply(iris_split, function(df) mean(df\$Sepal.Length))

# Using map with a built-in dataset
mean_sepal_length_map <- map(iris_split, ~ mean(.x\$Sepal.Length))

print(mean_sepal_length_lapply)

\$setosa
[1] 5.006

\$versicolor
[1] 5.936

\$virginica
[1] 6.588

print(mean_sepal_length_map)

\$setosa
[1] 5.006

\$versicolor
[1] 5.936

\$virginica
[1] 6.588

Again, the purrr version is cleaner and easier to understand at a glance.

Convinced? Let’s move on to explore simple maps and their variants to see more of purrr’s magic. Ready?

### Simple Maps and Their Variants

Now that we know why purrr’s map functions are so cool, let’s dive into some practical examples. The map function family is like a Swiss Army knife for data transformation. It comes in different flavors depending on the type of output you want: logical, integer, character, or double.

library(tidyverse)

# Basic map example
numbers <- list(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
squared_numbers <- map(numbers, ~ .x^2)
squared_numbers

Easy, right? Yes, but we have one twist here. Result is returned as list, and we don’t always need list. So now, let’s look at the type-specific variants. These functions ensure that the output is of a specific type, which can help avoid unexpected surprises in your data processing pipeline.

• Logical (map_lgl):
# Check if each number is even
is_even <- map_lgl(numbers, ~ .x %% 2 == 0)
is_even

[1] FALSE  TRUE FALSE  TRUE FALSE

# it is not list anymore, it is logical vector
• Integer (map_int):
# Double each number and return as integers
doubled_integers <- map_int(numbers, ~ .x * 2)
doubled_integers

[1]  2  4  6  8 10
• Character (map_chr):
# Convert each number to a string
number_strings <- map_chr(numbers, ~ paste("Number", .x))
number_strings

[1] "Number 1" "Number 2" "Number 3" "Number 4" "Number 5"
• Double (map_dbl):
# Half each number and return as doubles
halved_doubles <- map_dbl(numbers, ~ .x / 2)
halved_doubles

[1] 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

Let’s apply this to a built-in dataset to see it in action:

# Using map_dbl on the iris dataset to get the mean of each numeric column
iris_means <- iris %>%
select(-Species) %>%
map_dbl(mean)
iris_means

Sepal.Length  Sepal.Width Petal.Length  Petal.Width
5.843333     3.057333     3.758000     1.199333

Here, we’ve calculated the mean of each numeric column in the iris dataset, and the result is a named vector of doubles.

Pretty neat, huh? The map family makes it easy to ensure your data stays in the format you expect.

Ready to see how purrr handles multiple vectors with map2 and pmap?

### Not Only One Vector: map2 and pmap + Variants

So far, we’ve seen how map functions work with a single vector or list. But what if you have multiple vectors and want to apply a function to corresponding elements from each? Enter map2 and pmap.

• map2: This function applies a function to corresponding elements of two vectors or lists.
• pmap: This function applies a function to corresponding elements of multiple lists.

library(tidyverse)

# Two vectors to work with
vec1 <- c(1, 2, 3)
vec2 <- c(4, 5, 6)

# Adding corresponding elements of two vectors
sum_vecs <- map2(vec1, vec2, ~ .x + .y)
sum_vecs

[[1]]
[1] 5

[[2]]
[1] 7

[[3]]
[1] 9

Here, map2 takes elements from vec1 and vec2 and adds them together.

Now, let’s step it up with pmap:

# Creating a tibble for multiple lists
df <- tibble(
a = 1:3,
b = 4:6,
c = 7:9
)

# Summing corresponding elements of multiple lists
sum_pmap <- pmap(df, ~ ..1 + ..2 + ..3)
sum_pmap

[[1]]
[1] 12

[[2]]
[1] 15

[[3]]
[1] 18

In this example, pmap takes elements from columns a, b, and c of the tibble and sums them up.

Look at syntax in those two examples. In map2, we give two vectors or lists, and then we are reffering to them as .x and .y. Further in pmap example we have data.frame, but it can be a list of lists, and we need to refer to them with numbers like ..1, ..2 and ..3 (and more if needed).

### Variants of map2 and pmap

Just like map, map2 and pmap have type-specific variants. Let’s see a couple of examples using data structures already defined above:

• map2_dbl:
# Multiplying corresponding elements of two vectors and returning doubles
product_vecs <- map2_dbl(vec1, vec2, ~ .x * .y)
product_vecs

[1]  4 10 18
• pmap_chr:
# Concatenating corresponding elements of multiple lists into strings
concat_pmap <- pmap_chr(df, ~ paste(..1, ..2, ..3, sep = "-"))
concat_pmap

[1] "1-4-7" "2-5-8" "3-6-9"

These variants ensure that your results are of the expected type, just like the basic map variants.

With map2 and pmap, you can handle more complex data transformations involving multiple vectors or lists with ease.

Ready to move on and see what lmap and imap can do for you?

### Using imap for Indexed Mapping and Conditional Maps with _if and _at

Let’s combine our exploration of imap with the conditional mapping functions map_if and map_at. These functions give you more control over how and when functions are applied to your data, making your code more precise and expressive.

#### imap: Indexed Mapping

The imap function is a handy tool when you need to include the index or names of elements in your function calls. This is particularly useful for tasks where the position or name of an element influences the operation performed on it.

Here’s a practical example with a named list:

library(tidyverse)

# A named list of scores
named_scores <- list(math = 90, science = 85, history = 78)

# Create descriptive strings for each score
score_descriptions <- imap(named_scores, ~ paste(.y, "score is", .x))
score_descriptions

\$math
[1] "math score is 90"

\$science
[1] "science score is 85"

\$history
[1] "history score is 78"

In this example:

1. We have a named list named_scores with subject scores.
2. We use imap to create a descriptive string for each score that includes the subject name and the score.

#### Conditional Maps with map_if and map_at

Sometimes, you don’t want to apply a function to all elements of a list or vector — only to those that meet certain conditions. This is where map_if and map_at come into play.

map_if: Conditional Mapping

Use map_if to apply a function to elements that satisfy a specific condition (predicate).

# Mixed list of numbers and characters
mixed_list <- list(1, "a", 3, "b", 5)

# Double only the numeric elements
doubled_numbers <- map_if(mixed_list, is.numeric, ~ .x * 2)
doubled_numbers

[[1]]
[1] 2

[[2]]
[1] "a"

[[3]]
[1] 6

[[4]]
[1] "b"

[[5]]
[1] 10

In this example:

1. We have a mixed list of numbers and characters.
2. We use map_if to double only the numeric elements, leaving the characters unchanged.

map_at: Specific Element Mapping

Use map_at to apply a function to specific elements of a list or vector, identified by their indices or names.

# A named list of mixed types
specific_list <- list(a = 1, b = "hello", c = 3, d = "world")

# Convert only the character elements to uppercase
uppercase_chars <- map_at(specific_list, c("b", "d"), ~ toupper(.x))
uppercase_chars

\$a
[1] 1

\$b
[1] "HELLO"

\$c
[1] 3

\$d
[1] "WORLD"

In this example:

1. We have a named list with mixed types.
2. We use map_at to convert only the specified character elements to uppercase.

Combining imap, map_if, and map_at allows you to handle complex data transformation tasks with precision and clarity. These functions make it easy to tailor your operations to the specific needs of your data.

Shall we move on to the next chapter to explore walk and its friends for side-effect operations?

### Make Something Happen Outside of Data: walk and Its Friends

Sometimes, you want to perform operations that have side effects, like printing, writing to a file, or plotting, rather than returning a transformed list or vector. This is where the walk family of functions comes in handy. These functions are designed to be used for their side effects, as they return NULL.

#### walk

The basic walk function applies a function to each element of a list or vector and performs actions like printing or saving files.

library(tidyverse)

# A list of numbers
numbers <- list(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

# Print each number
walk(numbers, ~ print(.x))

[1] 1
[1] 2
[1] 3
[1] 4
[1] 5

In this example, walk prints each element of the numbers list.

#### walk2

When you have two lists or vectors and you want to perform side-effect operations on their corresponding elements, walk2 is your friend.

# Two vectors to work with
vec1 <- c("apple", "banana", "cherry")
vec2 <- c("red", "yellow", "dark red")

# Print each fruit with its color
walk2(vec1, vec2, ~ cat(.x, "is", .y, "\n"))

apple is red
banana is yellow
cherry is dark red

Here, walk2 prints each fruit with its corresponding color.

#### iwalk

iwalk is the side-effect version of imap. It includes the index or names of the elements, which can be useful for logging or debugging.

# A named list of scores
named_scores <- list(math = 90, science = 85, history = 78)

# Print each subject with its score
iwalk(named_scores, ~ cat("The score for", .y, "is", .x, "\n"))

The score for math is 90
The score for science is 85
The score for history is 78

In this example, iwalk prints each subject name with its corresponding score.

#### Practical Example with Built-in Data

Let’s use a built-in dataset and perform some side-effect operations. Suppose you want to save plots of each numeric column in the mtcars dataset to separate files.

# Directory to save plots
dir.create("plots")

# Save histograms of each numeric column to files
walk(names(mtcars), ~ {
if (is.numeric(mtcars[[.x]])) {
plot_path <- paste0("plots/", .x, "_histogram.png")
png(plot_path)
hist(mtcars[[.x]], main = paste("Histogram of", .x), xlab = .x)
dev.off()
}
})

In this example:

1. We create a directory called “plots”.
2. We use walk to iterate over the names of the mtcars dataset.
3. For each numeric column, we save a histogram to a PNG file.

This is a practical demonstration of how walk can be used for side-effect operations such as saving files.

### Why Do We Need modify Then?

Sometimes you need to tweak elements within a list or vector without completely transforming them. This is where modify functions come in handy. They allow you to make specific changes to elements while preserving the overall structure of your data.

#### modify

The modify function applies a transformation to each element of a list or vector and returns the modified list or vector.

library(tidyverse)

# A list of numbers
numbers <- list(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

# Add 10 to each number
modified_numbers <- modify(numbers, ~ .x + 10)
modified_numbers

[[1]]
[1] 11

[[2]]
[1] 12

[[3]]
[1] 13

[[4]]
[1] 14

[[5]]
[1] 15

In this example, modify adds 10 to each element of the numbers list.

#### modify_if

modify_if is used to conditionally modify elements that meet a specified condition (predicate).

# Modify only the even numbers by multiplying them by 2
modified_if <- modify_if(numbers, ~ .x %% 2 == 0, ~ .x * 2)
modified_if

[[1]]
[1] 1

[[2]]
[1] 4

[[3]]
[1] 3

[[4]]
[1] 8

[[5]]
[1] 5

Here, modify_if multiplies only the even numbers by 2.

#### modify_at

modify_at allows you to specify which elements to modify based on their indices or names.

# A named list of mixed types
named_list <- list(a = 1, b = "hello", c = 3, d = "world")

# Convert only the specified elements to uppercase
modified_at <- modify_at(named_list, c("b", "d"), ~ toupper(.x))
modified_at

\$a
[1] 1

\$b
[1] "HELLO"

\$c
[1] 3

\$d
[1] "WORLD"

In this example, modify_at converts the specified character elements to uppercase.

#### modify with Built-in Dataset

Let’s use the iris dataset to demonstrate how modify functions can be applied in a practical scenario. Suppose we want to normalize numeric columns by dividing each value by the maximum value in its column.

# Normalizing numeric columns in the iris dataset
normalized_iris <- iris %>%
modify_at(vars(Sepal.Length, Sepal.Width, Petal.Length, Petal.Width),
~ .x / max(.x))

Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width Species
1    0.6455696   0.7954545    0.2028986        0.08  setosa
2    0.6202532   0.6818182    0.2028986        0.08  setosa
3    0.5949367   0.7272727    0.1884058        0.08  setosa
4    0.5822785   0.7045455    0.2173913        0.08  setosa
5    0.6329114   0.8181818    0.2028986        0.08  setosa
6    0.6835443   0.8863636    0.2463768        0.16  setosa

1          5.1         3.5          1.4         0.2  setosa
2          4.9         3.0          1.4         0.2  setosa
3          4.7         3.2          1.3         0.2  setosa
4          4.6         3.1          1.5         0.2  setosa
5          5.0         3.6          1.4         0.2  setosa
6          5.4         3.9          1.7         0.4  setosa

In this example:

1. We use modify_at to specify the numeric columns of the iris dataset.
2. Each value in these columns is divided by the maximum value in its respective column, normalizing the data.

modify functions offer a powerful way to make targeted changes to your data, providing flexibility and control.

### Predicates: Does Data Satisfy Our Assumptions? every, some, and none

When working with data, it’s often necessary to check if certain conditions hold across elements in a list or vector. This is where predicate functions like every, some, and none come in handy. These functions help you verify whether elements meet specified criteria, making your data validation tasks easier and more expressive.

#### every

The every function checks if all elements in a list or vector satisfy a given predicate. If all elements meet the condition, it returns TRUE; otherwise, it returns FALSE.

library(tidyverse)

# A list of numbers
numbers <- list(2, 4, 6, 8)

# Check if all numbers are even
all_even <- every(numbers, ~ .x %% 2 == 0)
all_even

[1] TRUE

In this example, every checks if all elements in the numbers list are even.

#### some

The some function checks if at least one element in a list or vector satisfies a given predicate. If any element meets the condition, it returns TRUE; otherwise, it returns FALSE.

# Check if any number is greater than 5
any_greater_than_five <- some(numbers, ~ .x > 5)
any_greater_than_five

[1] TRUE

Here, some checks if any element in the numbers list is greater than 5.

#### none

The none function checks if no elements in a list or vector satisfy a given predicate. If no elements meet the condition, it returns TRUE; otherwise, it returns FALSE.

# Check if no number is odd
none_odd <- none(numbers, ~ .x %% 2 != 0)
none_odd

[1] TRUE

In this example, none checks if no elements in the numbers list are odd.

#### Practical Example with Built-in Dataset

Let’s use the mtcars dataset to demonstrate how these predicate functions can be applied in a practical scenario. Suppose we want to check various conditions on the columns of this dataset.

# Check if all cars have more than 10 miles per gallon (mpg)
all_mpg_above_10 <- mtcars %>%
select(mpg) %>%
map_lgl(~ every(.x, ~ .x > 10))
all_mpg_above_10

mpg
TRUE

# Check if some cars have more than 150 horsepower (hp)
some_hp_above_150 <- mtcars %>%
select(hp) %>%
map_lgl(~ some(.x, ~ .x > 150))
some_hp_above_150

hp
TRUE

# Check if no car has more than 8 cylinders
none_cyl_above_8 <- mtcars %>%
select(cyl) %>%
map_lgl(~ none(.x, ~ .x > 8))
none_cyl_above_8

cyl
TRUE

In this example:

1. We check if all cars in the mtcars dataset have more than 10 mpg using every.
2. We check if some cars have more than 150 horsepower using some.
3. We check if no car has more than 8 cylinders using none.

These predicate functions provide a straightforward way to validate your data against specific conditions, making your analysis more robust.

### What If Not: keep and discard

When you’re working with lists or vectors, you often need to filter elements based on certain conditions. The keep and discard functions from purrr are designed for this purpose. They allow you to retain or remove elements that meet specified criteria, making it easy to clean and subset your data.

#### keep

The keep function retains elements that satisfy a given predicate. If an element meets the condition, it is kept; otherwise, it is removed.

library(tidyverse)

# A list of mixed numbers
numbers <- list(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10)

# Keep only the even numbers
even_numbers <- keep(numbers, ~ .x %% 2 == 0)
even_numbers

[[1]]
[1] 2

[[2]]
[1] 4

[[3]]
[1] 6

[[4]]
[1] 8

[[5]]
[1] 10

In this example, keep retains only the even numbers from the numbers list.

The discard function removes elements that satisfy a given predicate. If an element meets the condition, it is discarded; otherwise, it is kept.

odd_numbers <- discard(numbers, ~ .x %% 2 == 0)
odd_numbers

[[1]]
[1] 1

[[2]]
[1] 3

[[3]]
[1] 5

[[4]]
[1] 7

[[5]]
[1] 9

Here, discard removes the even numbers, leaving only the odd numbers in the numbers list.

### Practical Example with Built-in Dataset

Let’s use the iris dataset to demonstrate how keep and discard can be applied in a practical scenario. Suppose we want to filter rows based on specific conditions for the Sepal.Length column.

library(tidyverse)

# Keep rows where Sepal.Length is greater than 5.0
iris_keep <- iris %>%
split(1:nrow(.)) %>%
keep(~ .x\$Sepal.Length > 5.0) %>%
bind_rows()

Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width Species
1          5.1         3.5          1.4         0.2  setosa
2          5.4         3.9          1.7         0.4  setosa
3          5.4         3.7          1.5         0.2  setosa
4          5.8         4.0          1.2         0.2  setosa
5          5.7         4.4          1.5         0.4  setosa
6          5.4         3.9          1.3         0.4  setosa

# Discard rows where Sepal.Length is less than or equal to 5.0
split(1:nrow(.)) %>%
bind_rows()

Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width Species
1          5.1         3.5          1.4         0.2  setosa
2          5.4         3.9          1.7         0.4  setosa
3          5.4         3.7          1.5         0.2  setosa
4          5.8         4.0          1.2         0.2  setosa
5          5.7         4.4          1.5         0.4  setosa
6          5.4         3.9          1.3         0.4  setosa

In this example:

1. We split the iris dataset into a list of rows.
2. We apply keep to retain rows where Sepal.Length is greater than 5.0.
3. We apply discard to remove rows where Sepal.Length is less than or equal to 5.0.
4. Finally, we use bind_rows() to combine the list back into a data frame.

#### Combining keep and discard with mtcars

Similarly, let’s fix the mtcars example:

# Keep cars with mpg greater than 20 and discard cars with hp less than 100
filtered_cars <- mtcars %>%
split(1:nrow(.)) %>%
keep(~ .x\$mpg > 20) %>%
bind_rows()

filtered_cars

mpg cyl  disp  hp drat    wt  qsec vs am gear carb
Mazda RX4      21.0   6 160.0 110 3.90 2.620 16.46  0  1    4    4
Mazda RX4 Wag  21.0   6 160.0 110 3.90 2.875 17.02  0  1    4    4
Hornet 4 Drive 21.4   6 258.0 110 3.08 3.215 19.44  1  0    3    1
Lotus Europa   30.4   4  95.1 113 3.77 1.513 16.90  1  1    5    2
Volvo 142E     21.4   4 121.0 109 4.11 2.780 18.60  1  1    4    2

In this combined example:

1. We split the mtcars dataset into a list of rows.
2. We use keep to retain cars with mpg greater than 20.
3. We use discard to remove cars with hp less than 100.
4. We combine the filtered list back into a data frame using bind_rows().

### Do Things in Order of List/Vector: accumulate, reduce

Sometimes, you need to perform cumulative or sequential operations on your data. This is where accumulate and reduce come into play. These functions allow you to apply a function iteratively across elements of a list or vector, either accumulating results at each step or reducing the list to a single value.

#### accumulate

The accumulate function applies a function iteratively to the elements of a list or vector and returns a list of intermediate results.

library(tidyverse)

# A list of numbers
numbers <- list(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

# Cumulative sum of the numbers
cumulative_sum <- accumulate(numbers, `+`)
cumulative_sum

[1]  1  3  6 10 15

#### reduce

The reduce function applies a function iteratively to reduce the elements of a list or vector to a single value.

Here’s a basic example:

# Sum of the numbers
total_sum <- reduce(numbers, `+`)
total_sum

[1] 15

#### Practical Example with Built-in Dataset

Let’s use the mtcars dataset to demonstrate how accumulate and reduce can be applied in a practical scenario.

Using accumulate with mtcars

Suppose we want to calculate the cumulative sum of the miles per gallon (mpg) for each car.

# Cumulative sum of mpg values
cumulative_mpg <- mtcars %>%
pull(mpg) %>%
accumulate(`+`)
cumulative_mpg

[1]  21.0  42.0  64.8  86.2 104.9 123.0 137.3 161.7 184.5 203.7 221.5 237.9 255.2 270.4 280.8 291.2 305.9 338.3 368.7
[20] 402.6 424.1 439.6 454.8 468.1 487.3 514.6 540.6 571.0 586.8 606.5 621.5 642.9

In this example, accumulate gives us a cumulative sum of the mpg values for the cars in the mtcars dataset.

Using reduce with mtcars

Now, let’s say we want to find the product of all mpg values:

# Product of mpg values
product_mpg <- mtcars %>%
pull(mpg) %>%
reduce(`*`)
product_mpg

[1] 1.264241e+41

In this example, reduce calculates the product of all mpg values in the mtcars dataset.

### Do It Another Way: compose and negate

Creating flexible and reusable functions is a hallmark of efficient programming. purrr provides tools like compose and negate to help you build and manipulate functions more effectively. These tools allow you to combine multiple functions into one or invert the logic of a predicate function.

#### compose

The compose function combines multiple functions into a single function that applies them sequentially. This can be incredibly useful for creating pipelines of operations.

Here’s a basic example:

library(tidyverse)

# Define some simple functions
add1 <- function(x) x + 1
square <- function(x) x * x

# Compose them into a single function

# Apply the composed function
result <- add1_and_square(2)  # (2 + 1)^2 = 9
result

[1] 9

In this example:

1. We define two simple functions: add1 and square.
2. We use compose to create a new function, add1_and_square, which first adds 1 to its input and then squares the result.
3. We apply the composed function to the number 2, yielding 9.

#### Practical Example with Built-in Dataset

Let’s use compose with a more practical example involving the mtcars dataset. Suppose we want to create a function that first scales the horsepower (hp) by 10 and then calculates the logarithm.

# Define scaling and log functions
scale_by_10 <- function(x) x * 10
safe_log <- safely(log, otherwise = NA)

# Compose them into a single function
scale_and_log <- compose(safe_log, scale_by_10)

# Apply the composed function to the hp column
mtcars <- mtcars %>%
mutate(log_scaled_hp = map_dbl(hp, ~ scale_and_log(.x)\$result))

mpg cyl disp  hp drat    wt  qsec vs am gear carb log_scaled_hp
Mazda RX4         21.0   6  160 110 3.90 2.620 16.46  0  1    4    4      7.003065
Mazda RX4 Wag     21.0   6  160 110 3.90 2.875 17.02  0  1    4    4      7.003065
Datsun 710        22.8   4  108  93 3.85 2.320 18.61  1  1    4    1      6.835185
Hornet 4 Drive    21.4   6  258 110 3.08 3.215 19.44  1  0    3    1      7.003065
Hornet Sportabout 18.7   8  360 175 3.15 3.440 17.02  0  0    3    2      7.467371
Valiant           18.1   6  225 105 2.76 3.460 20.22  1  0    3    1      6.956545

In this example:

1. We define two functions: scale_by_10 and safe_log.
2. We compose these functions into scale_and_log.
3. We apply the composed function to the hp column of the mtcars dataset and add the results as a new column.

#### negate

The negate function creates a new function that returns the logical negation of a predicate function. This is useful when you want to invert the logic of a condition.

Here’s a simple example:

# Define a simple predicate function
is_even <- function(x) x %% 2 == 0

# Negate the predicate function
is_odd <- negate(is_even)

# Apply the negated function
results <- map_lgl(1:10, is_odd)
results

[1]  TRUE FALSE  TRUE FALSE  TRUE FALSE  TRUE FALSE  TRUE FALSE

In this example:

1. We define a predicate function is_even to check if a number is even.
2. We use negate to create a new function is_odd that returns the opposite result.
3. We apply is_odd to the numbers 1 through 10.

#### Practical Example with Built-in Dataset

Let’s use negate in a practical scenario with the iris dataset. Suppose we want to filter out rows where the Sepal.Length is not greater than 5.0.

# Define a predicate function
is_long_sepal <- function(x) x > 5.0

# Negate the predicate function
is_not_long_sepal <- negate(is_long_sepal)

# Filter out rows where Sepal.Length is not greater than 5.0
iris_filtered <- iris %>%
split(1:nrow(.)) %>%
bind_rows()

Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width Species
1          5.1         3.5          1.4         0.2  setosa
2          5.4         3.9          1.7         0.4  setosa
3          5.4         3.7          1.5         0.2  setosa
4          5.8         4.0          1.2         0.2  setosa
5          5.7         4.4          1.5         0.4  setosa
6          5.4         3.9          1.3         0.4  setosa

In this example:

1. We define a predicate function is_long_sepal to check if Sepal.Length is greater than 5.0.
2. We use negate to create a new function is_not_long_sepal that returns the opposite result.
3. We use discard to remove rows where Sepal.Length is not greater than 5.0, then combine the filtered list back into a data frame.

With compose and negate, you can create more flexible and powerful functions, allowing for more concise and readable code.

### Conclusion

Congratulations! You’ve journeyed through the world of purrr, mastering a wide array of functions and techniques to manipulate and transform your data. From basic mapping to creating powerful function compositions, purrr equips you with tools to make your data wrangling tasks more efficient and expressive.

Whether you’re applying functions conditionally, dealing with side effects, or validating your data, purrr has you covered. Keep exploring and experimenting with these functions to unlock the full potential of functional programming in R.

I decided to give you some useful, yet not trivial use cases of purrr functions.

#### Define list of function to apply on data

apply_funs <- function(x, ...) purrr::map_dbl(list(...), ~ .x(x))

Want to apply multiple functions to a single vector and get a tidy result? Meet apply_funs, your new best friend! This nifty little function takes a value and a bunch of functions, then maps each function to the vector, returning the results as a neat vector.

Let’s break it down:

• x: The value you want to transform.
• ...: A bunch of functions you want to apply to x.
• purrr::map_dbl: Maps each function in the list to x and returns the results as a vector of doubles.

Suppose that you want to apply 3 summary functions on vector of numbers. Here’s how you can do it:

number <- 1:48

results <- apply_funs(number, mean, median, sd)
results

[1] 24.5 24.5 14.0

#### Using pmap as equivalent of Python’s zip

Sometimes you need to zip two tables or columns together. In Python there is zip function for it, but we do not have twin function in R, unless you use pmap. I will not make it longer, so check it out in one of my previous articles.

#### Rendering parameterized RMarkdown reports

Assuming that you have kind of report you use for each salesperson, there is possibility, that you are changing parameters manually to generate report for person X, for date range Y, for product Z. Why not prepare lists of people, time range, and list of products, and then based on them generate series of reports by one click only.

Mastering purrr: From Basic Maps to Functional Magic in R was originally published in Numbers around us on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.