Want to share your content on R-bloggers? click here if you have a blog, or here if you don't.

Recently I’ve had to get to grips with SSH tunnels. SSH tunnels are really useful for maintaining remote network integrity and work in a secure fashion. It is, however, a pain to open PuTTY and log in all the time, mainly because I couldn’t script it in R! It’s been a trial, but like most things it turned out to be pretty simple in the end so I thought I’d share it with you.

How To

Generate key

I generated a key in Rstudio first using openSSH. I’d put this key on GitHub and a few other places so I didn’t want to change it. To use the PuTTY tools, you have to use a different key format than the one openSSH creates so I used pretty much this same method to convert my existing key.

You need to run puttygen.exe, generate a key with a passphrase, and store the public version of the key on the remote machine. DigitalOcean have a really good article on generating keys and storing them that I recommend you follow.

Authenticate keys on startup

To avoid interactivity of any sort in my R scripts, I need some way of storing the passphrase for my key. I could generate a key without a password but that’s just a major security flaw I would prefer not to introduce. So, how can I get my keys to be pre-authenticated by me?

To tackle this persistence, it turns out our buddy PuTTY has a friend called pageant.exe. Pageant allows us to stash passphrases for our keys whilst pageant is running – but it will lose keys when you reboot.

Following this article on setting pageant to run on startup combined with an article on startup programs on windows 8.1 I set pageant to load on startup and request my passphrase.

The most important things in these two articles were:

• In the Run dialog type shell:startup and create a shortcut to your Pageant.exe
• Edit your shortcut to start in your .ssh directory so you can have an easier time referencing multiple key files

Whilst down the rabbit hole, I discovered just in passing via a beanstalk article that there’s actually been a command line interface for PuTTY called plink. D’oh! This changed the whole direction of the solution to what I present throughout.

Using plink.exe as the command line interface for PuTTY we can then connect to our remote network using the key pre-authenticated via pageant. As a consequence, we can now use the shell() command in R to use plink. We can then connect to our database using the standard Postgres driver.

library(RPostgreSQL)
drv  <- dbDriver("PostgreSQL")

cmd<- paste0(
# use key and run in background process
" -i ../.ssh/id_rsa -N -batch  -ssh",
# port forwarding
" -L 5432:127.0.0.1:5432"
# location of db
" [email protected]"
)

shell( cmd, wait=FALSE)

conn <- dbConnect(
drv,
host = "127.0.0.1",
port=5432,
dbname="mydb"
)

dbListTables(conn)


I went down the rabbit hole!

When picking up new (for you) technologies it can become an exercise in going down the rabbit hole – a reference to Alice in Wonderland where you’re trapped, confused, and running around looking for a way out.

Whilst going through this process I looked at the following:

These would be really cool to get working somehow. It would enable a Powershell script to run on startup that could securely retrieve my key passphrase out of the encrypted credentials database on Windows and pass them to ssh-agent so that I could work in an openSSH environment. It was, however, a PITA, with some bugs and limitations due to new process spawns, versions of Posh-Git and more. Plus, the more moving parts, the more unlikely something is to work.

Followup

So this is a relatively simple method but not all that simple, and I still have to think about how I can make this sensibly work on different OS in order to be able to do the usual testing and continuous integration practices.

I know more about SSH than I ever wished to so if you’re struggling, give me a shout and I’ll do my best to help. If you’re much further along than me, why not comment on how you’ve solved this challenge – I’d love to hear better ways of doing this!

Image from cat-o-morphism

The post SSH tunnels on Windows for R appeared first on It's a Locke.