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The German Federal Office for Information Security (BSI) has established
criteria for quality random number generator (rng):

• A sequence of random numbers has a high probability of containing no identical consecutive elements.
• A sequence of numbers which is indistinguishable from true random’ numbers (tested using statistical tests.
• It should be impossible to calculate, or guess, from any given sub-sequence, any previous or future values in the sequence.
• It should be impossible, for all practical purposes, for an attacker to calculate, or guess the values used in the random number algorithm.

Points 3 and 4 are crucial for many applications. Everytime you make a
phone call, contact to a wireless point, pay using your credit card random
numbers are used.

Designing a good random number generator is hard and as a general rule you should never try to. R comes with many good quality random generators. The default generator is the Mersenne-Twister. This rng has a huge period of $2^{19937}-1$ (how many random numbers are generated before we have a repeat).

## Linear congruential generators

A linear congruential generator (lcg) is a relatively simple rng (popular in the 60’s and 70’s). It has a simple form of

$r_{i}=(ar_{i-1}+b) \textrm{ mod }m, \quad i=1, 2, \ldots, m$

where $latexr_0$ is the initial number, known as the seed, and (a,b,m) are the multiplier, additive constant and modulo respectively. The parameters are all integers.

The modulo operation means that at most $m$ different numbers can be generated
before the sequence must repeat – namely the integers $0,1,2, \ldots, m-1$. The
actual number of generated numbers is $h \leq m$, called the period of
the generator.

The key to random number generators is in setting the parameters.

### RANDU

RANDU was a lcg with parameters $m=2^{31}, a=65539$ and $b=0$. Unfortunately this is a spectacularly bad choice of
parameters. On noting that $a=65,539=2^{16}+3$, then

$r_{i+1} = a r_i = 65539 \times r_i = (2^{16}+3)r_i \;.$

So

$r_{i+2} = a\;r_{i+1} = (2^{16}+3) \times r_{i+1} = (2^{16}+3)^2 r_i \;.$

On expanding the square, we get

$r_{i+2} = (2^{32}+6\times 2^{16} + 9)r_i = [6 (2^{16}+3)-9]r_i = 6 r_{i+1} - 9 r_i \;.$

Note: all these calculations should be to the mod $2^{31}$. So there is a large
correlation between the three points!

If compare randu to a standard rng (code in a gist)

It’s obvious that randu doesn’t produce good random numbers. Plotting  $x_i$, $x_{i-1}$ and $x_{i-2}$ in 3d

### Generating the graphics

The code is all in a gist and can be run via

 devtools::source_gist("https://gist.github.com/csgillespie/0ba4bbd8da0d1264b124") 

You can then get the 3d plot via

 scatterplot3d::scatterplot3d(randu[,1], randu[,2], randu[,3], angle=154) ## Interactive version threejs::scatterplot3js(randu[,1], randu[,2], randu[,3]) 

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