# Counterintuitive Results in Flipping Coins

**Keep on Fighting! » R Language**, and kindly contributed to R-bloggers]. (You can report issue about the content on this page here)

Want to share your content on R-bloggers? click here if you have a blog, or here if you don't.

Coin-flipping is a rather old topic in probability theory, so most of us think we know very well about it, however, the other day I saw a question about this old topic (in David Smith’s REvolution?) which was beyond me expectation: how many times do we need to flip the coin until we get a sequence of `HTH`

and `HTT`

respectively? (For example, for the sequence HHTH, the number for HTH to appear is 4, and in THTHTT, the number for HTT is 6.)

It seems that the two results are equivalent, as H and T occurs with equal probability 0.5, so we naturally believe the average numbers of steps to HTH and HTT are the same, but the fact is not as we imagined.

## smart guys use math formulae to solve the problem, ## but *lazy* guys like me use simulations with R coin.seq = function(v) { x = NULL n = 0 while (!identical(x, v)) { x = append(x[length(x) - 1:0], rbinom(1, 1, 0.5)) n = n + 1 } n } set.seed(919) mean(htt <- replicate(1e+05, coin.seq(c(1, 0, 0)))) # [1] 8.00304 mean(hth <- replicate(1e+05, coin.seq(c(1, 0, 1)))) # [1] 10.0062 png("coin-htt-hth.png", height = 150, width = 500) par(mar = c(3, 2.5, 0.1, 0), mgp = c(2, 0.8, 0)) boxplot(list(HTT = htt, HTH = hth), horizontal = T, xlab = "n", ylim = range(boxplot(list(HTT = htt, HTH = hth), plot = FALSE)$stats)) points(c(mean(htt), mean(hth)), 1:2, pch = 19) dev.off()

The answer is counterintuitive, isn’t it?

Well, mathematicians certainly do not like my solution (I guess they even hate such an imprecise approach). I hope some smart guys can give me some hints on working out the probability distribution and hence the expectation.

## Related Posts

**leave a comment**for the author, please follow the link and comment on their blog:

**Keep on Fighting! » R Language**.

R-bloggers.com offers

**daily e-mail updates**about R news and tutorials about learning R and many other topics. Click here if you're looking to post or find an R/data-science job.

Want to share your content on R-bloggers? click here if you have a blog, or here if you don't.