**Struggling Through Problems » R**, and kindly contributed to R-bloggers)

I don’t know how to do this in R. So let me just say why I can’t.

I wanted something akin to Boost‘s sub-matrix views, where you can have indexes map back to the original matrix, so you don’t create a new object.

Sounds straightforward, just overload ‘[[' to subtract the offset and check the length. Alas, no dice. R zealously copies objects to the point this is not (as far as I know, which isn't much) possible.

To demonstrate, the following function executes and times expressions operating on a vector called "M".

time.op = function(N, Exp) { Exp = parse(text=Exp) M = numeric(N) N.Trials = 10 Times = numeric(N.Trials) for (II in 1:N.Trials) { Times[[II]] = system.time(eval(Exp))[['elapsed']] } mean(Times) }

Like

> time.op(1e5, 'sqrt(M)') [1] 0.0024

Then see, does the size of M affect the time of the operation?

time.test = function(Exp) { Ns = 10^(1:6) Times = sapply(Ns, time.op, Exp=Exp) data.frame(Ns, Times) }

> time.test('sqrt(M)') Ns Times 1 1e+01 0.0000 2 1e+02 0.0000 3 1e+03 0.0001 4 1e+04 0.0004 5 1e+05 0.0027 6 1e+06 0.0274

(obviously)

And here's why we know it's copying:

> time.test('list(M)') Ns Times 1 1e+01 0.0001 2 1e+02 0.0001 3 1e+03 0.0002 4 1e+04 0.0000 5 1e+05 0.0004 6 1e+06 0.0086

Or with attributes

> time.test('attr(M, "name") = "mike"') Ns Times 1 1e+01 0.0000 2 1e+02 0.0000 3 1e+03 0.0000 4 1e+04 0.0000 5 1e+05 0.0006 6 1e+06 0.0081

Good luck making a subset without copying!

And here's the relevant parts of the R code.

Making a list (main/builtin.c)

for (i = 0; i < n; i++) { if (TAG(args) != R_NilValue) { SET_STRING_ELT(names, i, PRINTNAME(TAG(args))); havenames = 1; } else { SET_STRING_ELT(names, i, R_BlankString); } if (NAMED(CAR(args))) SET_VECTOR_ELT(list, i, duplicate(CAR(args))); else SET_VECTOR_ELT(list, i, CAR(args)); args = CDR(args); } if (havenames) { setAttrib(list, R_NamesSymbol, names); }

Note the repeated calls to "duplicate".

And yes, duplicate does copy, and it is deep (main/duplicate.c):

case VECSXP: n = LENGTH(s); PROTECT(s); PROTECT(t = allocVector(TYPEOF(s), n)); for(i = 0 ; i < n ; i++) SET_VECTOR_ELT(t, i, duplicate1(VECTOR_ELT(s, i))); DUPLICATE_ATTRIB(t, s); SET_TRUELENGTH(t, TRUELENGTH(s)); UNPROTECT(2); break;

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