# Strategic Zombie Simulation – Animation

May 17, 2013
By

(This article was first published on Econometrics by Simulation, and kindly contributed to R-bloggers)

`# Escape Zombie Land! # This is a simulation an escape from a hot zombie zone.  It freezes and gives an error if you get get killed so you had best not.  You attempt to navigate the zone by constructing waypoints. # This is not a very clean set up and I would like to clean it up.  However, I have spent way more time on it than I intended.  So I might come back to it another day. # Zombies are  distributed on a 10 x 10 grid.gridxy = c(10,10) # The number of zombies on the mapnzombies = 40 # How close a zombie needs to be to take out a human is defined here same.space = .05 # This is how close a human needs to be to consider that the human has reached the waypoint.waypoint.hit = .2 # I set up the zombie distribution randomly initially.set.seed(1)zombiexy = cbind(runif(nzombies)*gridxy[1], runif(nzombies)*gridxy[2])plot(zombiexy, main="Zombies!", xlab="X", ylab="Y", col=grey(.2), xlim=c(0,gridxy[1]), ylim=c(0,gridxy[2])) # Humansstartpoint = c(.5,.5)humans = data.frame(x=c(0,-.25, .25), y=c(0,.25, -.25), name=c("You","Pete", "Jimmy")) humansxy = humans[,1:2] # Count humansnhumans = nrow(humansxy) (humansxy = humansxy+rep(startpoint, each=nhumans)) # Plot humanspoints(humansxy, pch=8) # Safetysafety = c(9.5,9.5) # Waypoints, specify the waypoints the humans are to take to get to the destination.waypoints = rbind(c(2.5,2), c(5,6), c(9.75, 7)) # Routeroute = rbind(startpoint, waypoints, safety, safety, safety)lines(route) # A vector that will be shortenned as the simulation progressesroute.unreached = route points(safety[1], safety[2], pch=7) # Now let's imagine that each zombie has a sensory distance in which the zombie can detect humans.detection.dist = 3 # How fast the zombies can move.  Zombies have no inertia.zombie.acceleration = .075 # How fast humans can movehuman.acceleration = .075 # Humans can outrun zombies by building up inertiahuman.inertia = .6 # Initially everybody is at rest.hmovement = zmovement = 0 # ---------------------------------------------------                       #### Set up a single loop to check programming.  # First the zombies move  # First let's check how close each zombie is to each human.  # We will accomplish this by going through each zombie and checking how far away each zombie is from each human.  distances = matrix(NA, nrow=nzombies, ncol=nhumans)  for (i in 1:nzombies) for (ii in 1:nhumans) distances[i,ii] = (sum((zombiexy[i,]-humansxy[ii,])^2))^.5   target =  matrix(1:nrow(humansxy), ncol=nzombies, nrow=nrow(humansxy))[apply(distances, 1, order)[1,]]    # The apply command will apply the order command to each row while the [1,] selects only the critter that is closes.   plot(zombiexy, xlab = "X", ylab = "Y", main="If zombies did not have perception limitations")  for (i in 1:nzombies) arrows(x0=zombiexy[i,1], y0=zombiexy[i,2],                                x1=humansxy[target,][i,1],                                 y1=humansxy[target,][i,2],                                 length=.1, col="red") `

`  points(humansxy, pch=8)   # Safety  points(9.5,9.5, pch=7)   # However, if the target is outside of detection range then zombies cannot target that human.  target[distances[cbind(1:nzombies,target)]>detection.dist]=NA   # Plot the relationship between zombies and humans  plot(zombiexy, xlab = "X", ylab = "Y", main="Escape Zombie Land")  for (i in 1:nzombies) arrows(x0=zombiexy[i,1], y0=zombiexy[i,2],                                x1=humansxy[target,][i,1],                                 y1=humansxy[target,][i,2],                                 length=.1, col="red")  # Plot humans  points(humansxy, pch=8)   # Safety  points(9.5,9.5, pch=7)    # This calculates the difference between the current position of each zombie and that of the closest human.  ab = zombiexy-humansxy[target,]   ab=ab[!is.na(target),]   # Now calculate the difference in the horizontal and vertical axes that the zombies will move as a projection into the direction of the closest zombie outside of the perceptive zone.  a.prime = zombie.acceleration/(1 + (ab[,2]^2)/(ab[,1]^2))^.5  b.prime = (zombie.acceleration^2-a.prime^2)^.5   # This corrects the movement to ensure that the zombies are moving at the humans rather than away from them.  zmovement = cbind(a.prime * sign(ab[,2]), b.prime * sign(ab[,1]))  between = function(xy1,xy2,point) ((point>xy1&point<xy2)|(point>xy2&point<xy1))  zmovement = zmovement*(-1)^between(zombiexy[!is.na(target),],humansxy[target[!is.na(target)],], zombiexy[!is.na(target),]-zmovement)   # Set the new xypos  (zombiexy[!is.na(target),] = zombiexy[!is.na(target),]+zmovement)   points(zombiexy, col="red")   # Check if any of the zombies caught a human  distances = matrix(NA, nrow=nzombies, ncol=nhumans)  for (i in 1:nzombies) for (ii in 1:nhumans) distances[i,ii] = (sum((zombiexy[i,]-humansxy[ii,])^2))^.5   zombie.feast = distances[cbind(1:nzombies,target)]<same.space  zombie.feast[is.na(zombie.feast)]=F   humans.down=NULL  (humans.down=unique(c(humans.down, unique(target[zombie.feast]))))   # Remove victorious zombies from zombie pool (occupied)  (zombiexynew = zombiexy[!zombie.feast,])   # Check if you are eaten  if (1 %in% humans.down) stop("You died")   # Display messages:  if (length(humans.down)==1) warntxt = paste(humans[humans.down,3], "'s down!", sep="")  if (length(humans.down)>1) warntxt = paste(humans[humans.down,3], "are down!")   # Remove any "captured" humans  if (length(humans.down)>0) {     humansxy = humansxy[-humans.down,]    nhumans = nrow(humansxy)  }   # Now the surving humans get to move.   # However, we only calculate the movement for the leader (you) since all of the other humans move in parrellel to you.   # Movement is also much simpler since humans just run from one waypoint to the next.   # First we check if we have reached any waypoints (which we have since we start on one).  way.distance =   (sum((humansxy[1,]-route.unreached[1,])^2))^.5   if (length(route.unreached)==0) stop("Congraduations! Safety reached!")   if (way.distance<waypoint.hit) (route.unreached = route.unreached[-1,])   # Now calculate the next place to move  ab = humansxy[1,]-route.unreached[1,]   # Now calculate the difference in the horizontal and vertical axes that the humans will move as a projection into the direction of the closest human outside of the perceptive zone.  a.prime = human.acceleration/(1 + (ab[,2]^2)/(ab[,1]^2))^.5  b.prime = (human.acceleration^2-a.prime^2)^.5   # This corrects the movement to ensure that the zombies are moving at the humans rather than away from them.  hmovement = cbind(a.prime * sign(ab[,2]), b.prime * sign(ab[,1]))  between = function(xy1,xy2,point) ((point>xy1&point<xy2)|(point>xy2&point<xy1))  hmovement = hmovement*(-1)^between(humansxy[1,],route.unreached[1,], humansxy[1,]-hmovement)   # Let's see what this looks like!  points(humansxy, pch=8)  lines(route)  points(safety[1], safety[2], pch=7)   points(route.unreached[-nrow(route.unreached),], pch=17)   # Set the new xypos  (humansxy = humansxy+ t(matrix(hmovement,nrow=2, ncol=nhumans)))  # hmovement0 will save the movement to allow for inertia  hmovement0 = t(matrix(hmovement,nrow=2, ncol=nhumans))  points(humansxy, pch=8, col="blue") # ------------------------------------------------------# Let's turn this into an animation.ani.pause=F library(animation)flocking = function (ani.pause=F) {   # This is text displayed on the map initially  warntxt = "We need to make a run for the safe zone.  Choose a route."   while (nrow(route.unreached)>2) {   # First let's check how close each zombie is to each human.  # We will accomplish this by going through each zombie and checking how far away each zombie is from each human.  distances = matrix(NA, nrow=nzombies, ncol=nhumans)  for (i in 1:nzombies) for (ii in 1:nhumans) distances[i,ii] = (sum((zombiexy[i,]-humansxy[ii,])^2))^.5   if (nrow(humansxy)>1) target = matrix(1:nrow(humansxy), ncol=nzombies, nrow=nrow(humansxy))[apply(distances, 1, order)[1,]]  if (nrow(humansxy)==1) matrix(1, ncol=nzombies, nrow=1)  # The apply command will apply the order command to each row while the [1,] selects only the critter that is closes.   target[distances[cbind(1:nzombies,target)]>detection.dist]=NA   # Plot the relationship between zombies and humans  plot(0,0, type="n", xlab = "X", ylab = "Y", main="Escape Zombie Land", xlim=c(0,gridxy[1]), ylim=c(0,gridxy[2]))   # Safety  points(9.5,9.5, pch=7)   text(5,.25,warntxt)    # This calculates the difference between the current position of each zombie and that of the closest human.  ab = zombiexy-humansxy[target,]   ab=ab[!is.na(target),]   # Now calculate the difference in the horizontal and vertical axes that the zombies will move as a projection into the direction of the closest zombie outside of the perceptive zone.  a.prime = zombie.acceleration/(1 + (ab[,2]^2)/(ab[,1]^2))^.5  b.prime = (zombie.acceleration^2-a.prime^2)^.5   # This corrects the movement to ensure that the zombies are moving at the humans rather than away from them.  zmovement = cbind(a.prime * sign(ab[,2]), b.prime * sign(ab[,1]))  between = function(xy1,xy2,point) ((point>xy1&point<xy2)|(point>xy2&point<xy1))  zmovement = zmovement*(-1)^between(zombiexy[!is.na(target),],humansxy[target[!is.na(target)],], zombiexy[!is.na(target),]-zmovement)   # Set the new xypos  zombiexy[!is.na(target),] = zombiexy[!is.na(target),]+zmovement   points(zombiexy)    # Check if any of the zombies caught a human  distances = matrix(NA, nrow=nzombies, ncol=nhumans)  for (i in 1:nzombies) for (ii in 1:nhumans) distances[i,ii] = (sum((zombiexy[i,]-humansxy[ii,])^2))^.5   zombie.feast = distances[cbind(1:nzombies,target)]<same.space  zombie.feast[is.na(zombie.feast)]=F   humans.down=NULL  humans.down=unique(c(humans.down, unique(target[zombie.feast])))   # Remove victorious zombies from zombie pool (occupied)  zombiexynew = zombiexy[!zombie.feast,]   # Check if you are eaten  if (1 %in% humans.down) warntxt = "You died"   # Display messages:  if (length(humans.down)==1) warntxt = paste(humans[humans.down,3], "'s down!", sep="")  if (length(humans.down)>1) warntxt = paste(humans[humans.down,3], "are down!")   # Remove any "captured" humans  if (length(humans.down)>0) {     humansxy = humansxy[-humans.down,]    nhumans = nrow(humansxy)  }   # Now the surving humans get to move.   # However, we only calculate the movement for the leader (you) since all of the other humans move in parrellel to you.   # Movement is also much simpler since humans just run from one waypoint to the next.   # First we check if we have reached any waypoints (which we have since we start on one).  way.distance = (sum((humansxy[1,]-route.unreached[1,])^2))^.5   if (length(route.unreached)==0) stop("Congraduations! Safety reached!")   if (way.distance<waypoint.hit) (route.unreached = route.unreached[-1,])   # Now calculate the next place to move  ab = humansxy[1,]-route.unreached[1,]   # Now calculate the difference in the horizontal and vertical axes that the humans will move as a projection into the direction of the closest human outside of the perceptive zone.  a.prime = human.acceleration/(1 + (ab[,2]^2)/(ab[,1]^2))^.5  b.prime = (human.acceleration^2-a.prime^2)^.5   # This corrects the movement to ensure that the zombies are moving at the humans rather than away from them.  hmovement = cbind(a.prime * sign(ab[,2]), b.prime * sign(ab[,1]))  between = function(xy1,xy2,point) ((point>xy1&point<xy2)|(point>xy2&point<xy1))  hmovement = hmovement*(-1)^between(humansxy[1,],route.unreached[1,], humansxy[1,]-hmovement)   # Let's see what this looks like!  points(safety[1], safety[2], pch=7)   points(route.unreached[-nrow(route.unreached),], pch=17)   # Set the new xypos  humansxy = humansxy+ t(matrix(hmovement,nrow=2, ncol=nhumans))+hmovement0*human.inertia  # hmovement0 will save the movement to allow for inertia  hmovement0 = t(matrix(hmovement,nrow=2, ncol=nhumans))  points(humansxy, pch=8, col="blue")   # This is only used in the event that the animate package is in use.  if (ani.pause) ani.pause()  }}ani.options(interval = .15)flocking()`

` # Let's see how we do at escaping zombie landani.options(ani.width=600, ani.height=600, interval=.25)saveGIF(flocking( ani.pause=T), movie.name = "Zombies.gif", replace=T)`

R-bloggers.com offers daily e-mail updates about R news and tutorials on topics such as: Data science, Big Data, R jobs, visualization (ggplot2, Boxplots, maps, animation), programming (RStudio, Sweave, LaTeX, SQL, Eclipse, git, hadoop, Web Scraping) statistics (regression, PCA, time series, trading) and more...