**Isomorphismes**, and kindly contributed to R-bloggers)

*Check them out.*

Here are thirty **homoskedastic** ones:

`> homo.wiener <- array(0, c(100, 30))`

> for (j in 1:30) {

for (i in 2:length(homo.wiener)) **{**

homo.wiener[i,j] <- homo.wiener[ i - 1, j] + rnorm(1)** }**}

`> for (j in 1:30) {`

` plot`

**(** homo.wiener[,j],

type = "l", col = rgb(.1,.1,.1,.6),

ylab="", xlab="", ylim=c(-25,25)** )**;

par(new=TRUE) }

Here’s just the meat of that wiener, in case the `for`

loops or window dressing were confusing.

`homo.wiener[i] <- homo.wiener[ i - 1] + rnorm(1)`

I also made you some **heteroskedastic** wieners.

`> same for-loop encasing. ∀ j make wieners; ∀j plot wieners`

> hetero.wiener[i] <- hetero.wiener[ i-1 ] + rnorm(1, sd=rpois(1,1) )

It wasn’t even that hard — here are some **autoregressive(1)** wieners as well.

`> same for-loop encasing. ∀j make wieners; ∀j plot wieners`

> ar.wiener[i] <- ar.wiener[i-1]*.9 + rnorm(1)

Other types of wieners:

`a.wiener[i-1] + rnorm(1) * a.wiener[i-1] + rnorm(1)`

`central.limit.wiener[i-1] + sum( runif(17, min=-1) )`

`cauchy.wiener[i-1] + rcauchy(1) #leaping lizards!`

`random.eruption.wiener[i-1] + rnorm(1) * random.eruption.wiener[i-1] + rnorm(1)`

`non.markov.wiener[i-1] + non.markov.wiener[i-2] + rnorm(1)`

`the.wiener.that.never.forgets[i] <- cumsum( the.wiener.that.never.forgets) + rnorm(1)`

`non.wiener[i] <- rnorm(1)`

`moving.average.3.wiener[i] <- .6 * rnorm(n=1,sd=1) + .1 * rnorm(n=1,sd=50) + .3 * rnorm(n=1, mean=-3,sd=17)`

`2d.wiener <- array(0, c`

**(**2, 100**)**);

ifelse( runif(1) > .5**,**2d.wiener[1,i] <- 2d.wiener[1,i-1] + rnorm(1)

&& 2d.wiener[2,i] <- 2d.wiener[2,i-1]**,**2d.wiener[2,i] <- 2d.wiener[2,i-1] + rnorm(1)

&& 2d.wiener[ 1,i] <- 2d.wiener[1,i-1]

`131d.wiener <- array(0, c`

**(**131, 100**)**); ....`cross.pollinated.wiener`

- contrasting
`sd=1,2,3`

of`homo.wieners`

What really stands out in writing about these wieners after playing around with them, is that **logically interesting** wieners don’t always make for **visually interesting** wieners.

There are lots of games you can play with these wieners. Some of my favourites are:

- trying to make the wieners look like stock prices (I thought
`sqrt(rcauchy(1))`

errors with a little autocorrelation looked pretty good) - trying to make them look like heart monitors

Also it’s pretty hard to tell which wieners are interesting just from looking at the codes above. I guess you will just have to go mess around with some wieners yourself. Some of them will surprise you and not do anything; that’s instructive as well.

**VOICE OF GOD: WHAT’S UP. I AM THAT I AM. I DECLARE THAT THE WORD ‘WIENER’ IS OBJECTIVELY FUNNY. THAT’S ALL FOR NOW. SEE YOU WEDNESDAY THE 17TH.**

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**Isomorphismes**.

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