Blog Archives

Large claims, and ratemaking

February 13, 2013
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Large claims, and ratemaking

During the course, we have seen that it is natural to assume that not only the individual claims frequency can be explained by some covariates, but individual costs too. Of course, appropriate families should be considered to model the distribution of the cost , given some covariates .Here is the dataset we’ll use, > sinistre=read.table("http://freakonometrics.free.fr/sinistreACT2040.txt", + header=TRUE,sep=";") > sinistres=sinistre...

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Exposure with binomial responses

February 9, 2013
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Exposure with binomial responses

Last week, we’ve seen how to take into account the exposure to compute nonparametric estimators of several quantities (empirical means, and empirical variances) incorporating exposure. Let us see what can be done if we want to model a binomial response. The model here is the following: , the number of claims  on the period  is unobserved the number of...

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Pills, half pills and probabilities

February 8, 2013
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Pills, half pills and probabilities

Yesterday, I was uploading some old posts to complete the migration (I get back to my old posts, one by one, to check links of pictures, reformating R codes, etc). And I re-discovered a post published amost 2 years ago, on nuns and Hell’s Angels in an airplaine. It reminded me an old probability problem (that might be known...

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Crash course on R for financial and actuarial econometrics

February 8, 2013
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Crash course on R for financial and actuarial econometrics

Next Friday, I will give in Montréal a crash course entitled Econometric Modeling in Finance and Insurance with the R Language. Since IFM2 wanted this course to be an opportunity to discover R, the first part o fthe course will be on the R language. Slides can be downloaded from here. (since the course is still scheduled, all comments...

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Natura non facit saltus

February 5, 2013
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Natura non facit saltus

(see John Wilkins’ article on the – interesting – history of that phrase http://scienceblogs.com/evolvingthoughts/…). We will see, this week in class, several smoothing techniques, for insurance ratemaking. As a starting point, assume that we do not want to use segmentation techniques: everyone will pay exactly the same price. no segmentation of the premium And that price should be related to...

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A random walk ? What else ?

February 2, 2013
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A random walk ? What else ?

Consider the following time series, What does it look like ? I know, this is a stupid game, but I keep using it in my time series courses. It does look like a random walk, doesn’t it ? If we use Philipps-Perron test, yes, it does, > PP.test(x) Phillips-Perron Unit Root Test data: x Dickey-Fuller = -2.2421, Truncation lag parameter = 6,...

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Overdispersion with different exposures

February 1, 2013
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Overdispersion with different exposures

In actuarial science, and insurance ratemaking, taking into account the exposure can be a nightmare (in datasets, some clients have been here for a few years – we call that exposure – while others have been here for a few months, or weeks). Somehow, simple results because more complicated to compute just because we have to take into account...

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Regression on categorical variables

January 30, 2013
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Regression on categorical variables

This morning, Stéphane asked me tricky question about extracting coefficients from a regression with categorical explanatory variates. More precisely, he asked me if it was possible to store the coefficients in a nice table, with information on the variable and the modality (those two information being in two different columns). Here is some code I did to produce the...

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The law of small numbers

January 28, 2013
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The law of small numbers

In insurance, the law of large numbers (named loi des grands nombres initially by Siméon Poisson, see e.g. http://en.wikipedia.org/…) is usually mentioned to legitimate large portfolios, because of pooling and diversification: the larger the pool, the more ‘predictable’ the losses will be (in a given period). Of course, under standard statistical assumption, namely finite expected value, and independence (see http://freakonometrics.blog.free.fr/…....

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Regression tree using Gini’s index

January 27, 2013
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Regression tree using Gini’s index

In order to illustrate the construction of regression tree (using the CART methodology), consider the following simulated dataset, > set.seed(1) > n=200 > X1=runif(n) > X2=runif(n) > P=.8*(X1<.3)*(X2<.5)+ + .2*(X1<.3)*(X2>.5)+ + .8*(X1>.3)*(X1<.85)*(X2<.3)+ + .2*(X1>.3)*(X1<.85)*(X2>.3)+ + .8*(X1>.85)*(X2<.7)+ + .2*(X1>.85)*(X2>.7) > Y=rbinom(n,size=1,P) > B=data.frame(Y,X1,X2) with one dichotomos varible (the variable of interest, ), and two continuous ones (the explanatory ones  and ). > tail(B) Y...

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