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**testthat** is a testing framework developed by Hadley Wickham, which makes unit testing easy for developers.

Test scripts developed can be re-run after debugging or making changes to the functions without the hassle of developing the code for testing again.

**testthat** has a heirarchical structure made up of expectations, tests and contexts.

Visit this link to know more.

You should be familiar with creation of functions in R to know how this testing framework works.

Answers to the exercises are available here.

**Exercise 1**

Install and load the package **testthat** using the appropriate function.

**Exercise 2**

`expect_that()`

is the function that makes the binary assertion of whether or not the value is as expected.

`expect_that(x,equals(y))`

reads as “it is expected that ‘a’ will be equal to ‘b’”.

Use this function to see if `5*2`

equals `10`

**Learn more**about Hadley Wickhams usefull packages in the online course R Data Pre-Processing & Data Management – Shape your Data!. In this course you will learn how to work with:

- tidyr, cleaning your data
- dplyr, shape your data
- And much more

**Exercise 3**

The function `equals()`

checks for equality with a numerical tolerance. Let’s see what that tolerance level is

Use appropriate function to see if `5*2`

equals `10 + (1e-7)`

.

Does the test fail?

If no, change the value to 1e-6 and see what happens.

**Exercise 4**

To exactly match the values `is_identical_to()`

can be used instead of `equals()`

Using the appropriate function, check if `2*2`

is identical to `4 + (1e-8)`

Please check the documentation of this package to learn more about the available functions.

**Exercise 5**

Let us create a function (m) to multiply two numbers ( two arguments ) and check if it throws an error with character input arguments.

Check if m(“2″,”3”) throws an error “non-numeric argument to binary operator”

**Exercise 6**

Now that we know how to check for expectations, let us create tests.

Test is a collection of expectations, where these expectations test a single item of the functionality of a process.

`test_that()`

is the function that encapsulates the description and the code to test each expectation.

The first argument is the description and the second argument is a collection of expectations.

Create a test for function ‘m’ with description “Testing multiplication function” and add a few scenarios to it.

1. Check if m(2,3) equals 6

2. Check if m(2,c(2,3)) equals c(4,6)

3. Check if m(2,”3″) throws an error “non-numeric argument to binary operator”

**Exercise 7**

The User can write his own expectation using the `expect()`

function. This expectation should compare the input value and the expectation and report the result.

The syntax to write one is as below.

custom_expectation <- function() {function(x) {expectation(condition, "Failure message")}}

Now, write an expectation `is_greater_10()`

to check if a number is greater than `10`

**Exercise 8**

Use the expectation defined above to check if 9 is greater than 10.

**Exercise 9**

tests can be put together in a file and run at once. Write tests of your choice and save them in a file.

Use the function `test_file()`

to run all the tests in the file.

**Exercise 10**

Test files in a directory can be run at once using the function `test_dir()`

.

Create multiple test files and save them in a directory. Run all the tests at once using the function.

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