slumping model

June 8, 2014
By

[This article was first published on Dan Kelley Blog/R, and kindly contributed to R-bloggers]. (You can report issue about the content on this page here)
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Introduction

I got interested in layered sedimentation from viewing a video and decided it would be interesting to code this into R. More on that in due course, but my first step was to code a syatem with one sediment “type”.

Procedure

The following code drops sediment particles at x=1, and lets them roll downhill
until they reach the bottom or a ledge. It draws numbers at the sedimented
particles’ final positions. Since the numbers start at 1, the values are like
inverse ages.

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m <- 51  # number of particles
n <- 10  # grid width
debug <- FALSE  # put TRUE for debugging
info <- function(...) if (debug) cat(...)
pch <- 20
cex <- 4/log2(n)
type <- "t"
set.seed(1)
rollDownhill <- function(X, Z) {
    info("rollDownhill(", X, ",", Z, ")\n", sep = "")
    if (Z == 1) 
        return(list(x = X, z = Z))
    ## Particles roll down-slope until they hit the bottom...  ... or a ledge
    ## comprising two particles.
    XX <- X
    ZZ <- Z
    while (0 == S[XX + 1, ZZ - 1]) {
        # move down and to right
        info("  XX:", XX, " ZZ:", ZZ, "\n")
        XX <- XX + 1
        ZZ <- which(0 == S[XX, ])[1]
        if (ZZ == 1) 
            break
        if (XX == n) 
            break
    }
    return(list(x = XX, z = ZZ))
}

S <- matrix(0, nrow = n, ncol = n)  # 'S' means 'space'
par(mar = c(3, 3, 1, 1), mgp = c(2, 0.7, 0))
plot(1:n, 1:n, type = "n", xlab = "", ylab = "")
xDrop <- 1  # location of drop; everything goes here or to right
for (i in 1:m) {
    # 'p' means partcle
    while (0 == length(zDrop <- which(0 == S[xDrop, ])[1])) {
        info("in while line 72\n")
        xDrop <- xDrop + 1
        if (xDrop == n) {
            message("RHS")
            break
        }
    }
    info("particle:", i, " ")
    p <- rollDownhill(xDrop, zDrop)
    S[p$x, p$z] <- 1
    if (type == "p") {
        points(p$x, p$z, col = "gray", pch = pch, cex = cex)
    } else {
        text(p$x, p$z, i, col = "gray")
    }
}

center

Discussion and conclusions

Reading the numbers on the graph as inverse age, one can see an interesting age
structure.

Viewed along diagonals, ages increase by 1 time unit with every lateral step
away from the source.

Viewed along Z levels, though, the time step is more interesting. You can see
this at a glance, by first-differencing the values along z=1, and then at z=2,
etc.

I suppose that if something came along and sliced the sediment mound along z
levels, we’d see this more interesting pattern of time variation in the
lateral.

I wonder if these patterns (or the code) are of interest to geologists?

Resources

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