**blogR**, and kindly contributed to R-bloggers)

@drsimonj here to make pretty scatter plots of correlated variables with ggplot2!

We’ll learn how to create plots that look like this:

## Data

In a data.frame `d`

, we’ll simulate two correlated variables `a`

and `b`

of length `n`

:

```
set.seed(170513)
n <- 200
d <- data.frame(a = rnorm(n))
d$b <- .4 * (d$a + rnorm(n))
head(d)
#> a b
#> 1 -0.9279965 -0.03795339
#> 2 0.9133158 0.21116682
#> 3 1.4516084 0.69060249
#> 4 0.5264596 0.22471694
#> 5 -1.9412516 -1.70890512
#> 6 1.4198574 0.30805526
```

## Basic scatter plot

Using ggplot2, the basic scatter plot (with `theme_minimal`

) is created via:

```
library(ggplot2)
ggplot(d, aes(a, b)) +
geom_point() +
theme_minimal()
```

## Shape and size

There are many ways to tweak the `shape`

and `size`

of the points. Here’s the combination I settled on for this post:

```
ggplot(d, aes(a, b)) +
geom_point(shape = 16, size = 5) +
theme_minimal()
```

## Color

We want to color the points in a way that helps to visualise the correlation between them.

One option is to `color`

by one of the variables. For example, color by `a`

(and hide legend):

```
ggplot(d, aes(a, b, color = a)) +
geom_point(shape = 16, size = 5, show.legend = FALSE) +
theme_minimal()
```

Although it’s subtle in this plot, the problem is that the color is changing as the points go from left to right. Instead, we want the color to change in a direction that characterises the correlation – diagonally in this case.

To do this, we can color points by the **first** principal component. Add it to the data frame as a variable `pc`

and use it to color like so:

```
d$pc <- predict(prcomp(~a+b, d))[,1]
ggplot(d, aes(a, b, color = pc)) +
geom_point(shape = 16, size = 5, show.legend = FALSE) +
theme_minimal()
```

Now we can add color, let’s pick something nice with the help of the `scale_color_gradient`

functions and some nice hex codes (check out color-hex for inspriation). For example:

```
ggplot(d, aes(a, b, color = pc)) +
geom_point(shape = 16, size = 5, show.legend = FALSE) +
theme_minimal() +
scale_color_gradient(low = "#0091ff", high = "#f0650e")
```

## Transparency

Now it’s time to get rid of those offensive mushes by adjusting the transparency with `alpha`

.

We could adjust it to be the same for every point:

```
ggplot(d, aes(a, b, color = pc)) +
geom_point(shape = 16, size = 5, show.legend = FALSE, alpha = .4) +
theme_minimal() +
scale_color_gradient(low = "#0091ff", high = "#f0650e")
```

This is fine most of the time. However, what if you have many points? Let’s try with 5,000 points:

```
# Simulate data
set.seed(170513)
n <- 5000
d <- data.frame(a = rnorm(n))
d$b <- .4 * (d$a + rnorm(n))
# Compute first principal component
d$pc <- predict(prcomp(~a+b, d))[,1]
# Plot
ggplot(d, aes(a, b, color = pc)) +
geom_point(shape = 16, size = 5, show.legend = FALSE, alpha = .4) +
theme_minimal() +
scale_color_gradient(low = "#0091ff", high = "#f0650e")
```

We’ve got another big mush. What if we take `alpha`

down really low to .05?

```
ggplot(d, aes(a, b, color = pc)) +
geom_point(shape = 16, size = 5, show.legend = FALSE, alpha = .05) +
theme_minimal() +
scale_color_gradient(low = "#0091ff", high = "#f0650e")
```

Better, except it’s now hard to see extreme points that are alone in space.

To solve this, we’ll map `alpha`

to the **inverse** point density. That is, turn down `alpha`

wherever there are lots of points! The trick is to use bivariate density, which can be added as follows:

```
# Add bivariate density for each point
d$density <- fields::interp.surface(
MASS::kde2d(d$a, d$b), d[,c("a", "b")])
```

Now plot with `alpha`

mapped to `1/density`

:

```
ggplot(d, aes(a, b, color = pc, alpha = 1/density)) +
geom_point(shape = 16, size = 5, show.legend = FALSE) +
theme_minimal() +
scale_color_gradient(low = "#0091ff", high = "#f0650e")
```

You can see that distant points are now too vibrant. Our final fix is to use `scale_alpha`

to tweak the alpha range. By default, this range is 0 to 1, making the most distant points have an alpha close to 1. Let’s restrict it to something better:

```
ggplot(d, aes(a, b, color = pc, alpha = 1/density)) +
geom_point(shape = 16, size = 5, show.legend = FALSE) +
theme_minimal() +
scale_color_gradient(low = "#0091ff", high = "#f0650e") +
scale_alpha(range = c(.05, .25))
```

Much better! No more mushy patches or lost points.

## Bringing it together

Here’s a complete example with new data and colors:

```
# Simulate data
set.seed(170513)
n <- 2000
d <- data.frame(a = rnorm(n))
d$b <- -(d$a + rnorm(n, sd = 2))
# Add first principal component
d$pc <- predict(prcomp(~a+b, d))[,1]
# Add density for each point
d$density <- fields::interp.surface(
MASS::kde2d(d$a, d$b), d[,c("a", "b")])
# Plot
ggplot(d, aes(a, b, color = pc, alpha = 1/density)) +
geom_point(shape = 16, size = 5, show.legend = FALSE) +
theme_minimal() +
scale_color_gradient(low = "#32aeff", high = "#f2aeff") +
scale_alpha(range = c(.25, .6))
```

## Sign off

Thanks for reading and I hope this was useful for you.

For updates of recent blog posts, follow @drsimonj on Twitter, or email me at [email protected] to get in touch.

If you’d like the code that produced this blog, check out the blogR GitHub repository.

**leave a comment**for the author, please follow the link and comment on their blog:

**blogR**.

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