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Matrix in R is formed using **matrix**, **rbind**, or **cbind** function. These functions have the following descriptions:

**matrix**– used to transform a concatenated data into matrix form of compatible dimensions.**rbind**– short for row bind, that binds a concatenated data points of same sizes by row.**cbind**– short for column bind, that binds a concatenated data points of same sizes by column.

**Example 1.** Consider this matrix, $\left[\begin{array}{ccc}

3&4&5\\

2&1&3\\

6&5&4

\end{array}\right]$. Using the **matrix** function above, we have

The data above is entered first using the concatenate function, **c**, and is assigned to the variable **data.a**. Next is to insert this data into a matrix using the **matrix** function, with the following arguments

**data.a**– the data**nrow**– the number of rows**ncol**– the number of columns**byrow**– the orientation of how data is inserted into the matrix. If**TRUE**, then it is by row, otherwise, by column.

Now, using the **rbind** function, the coding is as follows:

Notice the names of the rows are retained in the output. This, however, does not affect the format of the matrix, and can be overcomed by coding this way

Let’s consider the **cbind** function,

This is self-explanatory by comparing this to the **rbind** function.

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