(TL;DR: Vectors are ordered lists of numbers.)
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Sector, vector, the lyric inspector
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we learnt about scalars. We’ll now start learning about
Today’s topic: Vectors
What’s a Vector?
A vector is essentially a list of numbers! They’re normally
depicted as columns of numbers (i.e. as column vectors):
The order in which each number appears in our vector is important.
We can transpose vectors so that the rows become columns, or so that
the columns become rows. We’ll use an upper case “T” to denote the
We now have ourselves a row vector! Applying the transpose operation
on our row vector brings us right back to where we started:
A tiny bit of notation
We will use the notation from Goodfellow, Ian, et
al. and refer to vectors using
lower case, bold letters:
The individual elements of our vectors are often called
elements, components or entries. We’ll follow Goodfellow, Ian,
et al. and call them
elements. We’ll refer to the
element of our vector using an italicised with
a subscript indicating the element number:
For example, we’ll represent the second element of our vector like this:
How can we represent vectors in R?
Common vector types
We have many vector types in R. The vector types that I most commonly use are these:
- character, and
Coercing them vectors
In R, all elements of our vectors must be of the same type. If a
single element in our vectors violates this condition, the entire vector
is coerced into a more generic class. For example, this results in
an integer vector:
x <- c(2L, 3L, 5L) class(x)
##  "integer"
However, this results in a numeric vector:
x <- c(2L, 3L, 5L, 7) class(x)
##  "numeric"
This makes sense as we learnt in part
that our set of integers, , is a subset of our set of real
numbers, . That is:
The symbol means “is a proper/strict subset of”. It
indicates that all elements of the set on the left are contained within
the set on the right.
This means that we can represent both our integers and real numbers in a single vector of type
numeric. However, we can’t represent all of our real numbers in a vector type of
How can we create vectors?
We can create vectors by using the
c() function. For example, here is
a numeric vector:
x <- c(1, 2, 3) print(x)
##  1 2 3
Notice that when we print it out, it looks like a row vector.
However, when we use our vector in a
data.frame, we get this:
x_df <- data.frame(x) print(x_df)
## x ## 1 1 ## 2 2 ## 3 3
Looks like a column to me! (Note: The numbers in the column on the left are row numbers)
If we then transpose it, we get this:
x_df_transposed <- t(x_df) print(x_df_transposed)
## [,1] [,2] [,3] ## x 1 2 3
Looks like a row vector now! Exciting! If we transpose it again, we’re
back to a column vector:
## x ## [1,] 1 ## [2,] 2 ## [3,] 3
Vectors are ordered lists of numbers. We transposed the hell out of one.
Next time, we’ll combine our knowledge of scalars with our new knowledge