Custom Message Handler in R Shiny – Resembling insertUI & removeUI

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In April this year, I will have used R Shiny for a year. I am coming from a statistics background and the first programming language I learned was R and then Python. I am using R Shiny almost every week at work and I am amazed by how powerful it can be with no web development knowledge.

Since I started, I integrated shinyjs into my workflow and also a bit of Bootstrap and CSS knowledge. I have also dabbled a tiny bit in some basic JavaScript and jQuery.

I am constantly trying to improve my R Shiny application, in terms of UI/UX and also on the server-side. That is when I came across this excellent book.

In chapter 14, there are some detailed explanations about how to dynamically manage content with custom message handlers. At my current workplace, I just improved an R Shiny app by using insertUI and removeUI instead of renderUI. The book takes it a step further and explains how to dynamically remove and insert content with one’s own handler.

In this tutorial, I will go through the process of resembling the inertUI and removeUI functions in Shiny with my own custom message handler in JavaScript and jQuery.

You can check out the application here. It is nothing exciting. You are just able to dynamically add cards and remove them with a custom message handler.

Let’s jump into it.

First, we will be creating a boot_cards function with the help of Bootstrap that we will dynamically insert.

Creating A Function That Creates the HTML Cards

boot_cards <- function(title = NULL, body = NULL) {
  boot_cards <-
    div(
      class = "class = col-md-3 my-cards",
      div(
        class = "panel panel-default",
        div(
          class = "panel-heading",
          p(title)
        ),
        div(
          class = "panel-body",
          p(body)
        )
      )
    )
  
  return(boot_cards)

}

Then we are creating the UI part of the application.

R Shiny Custom Message Handler UI Part

At the head of the document, we put the JavaScript and jQuery code that will dynamically remove and add cards. Then we specify a sidebarPanel() where we will be adding two textInputs(). One where we can specify the header and body of the card. Then, there are two action buttons. One button will delete the last card and the other one will insert a card after the placeholder id. We are also including a script that will tell us if the add button or remove button was clicked.

ui <- shiny::fluidPage(

  shiny::singleton(
    tags$head(tags$script(src = "test.js"))
  ),

  div(
    class = "row",
    div(
      shiny::sidebarPanel(
        id = "sidebar",
        shiny::textInput(inputId = "header_add", label = "Add Title", placeholder = "Title"),
        shiny::textInput(inputId = "body_add", label = "Add Body", placeholder = "Body"),
        shiny::actionButton(inputId = "remove", label = "Remove Card"),
        shiny::actionButton(inputId = "add", label = "Add Card")
      )
    ),
    div(id = "placeholder")
  ),
  
  shiny::includeScript("www/button_click.js")

)

R Shiny Custom Message Handler – From R to JavaScript

Let’s jump to the server-side. First, we will be creating a cards function. With this function, we will be communicating from R to JavaScript. We will be sending the Bootstrap cards and which button has been clicked (add or remove) to JavaScript. With the help of JavaScript and jQuery, the cards with the appropriate text will be inserted dynamically.

cards <- function(item, button, session = shiny::getDefaultReactiveDomain()) {
  session$sendCustomMessage(
    type = 'add-remove-cards',
    message = list(
      card = as.character(item),
      add_remove = button
    )
  )
}

The function above sends an R list which will be received by JavaScript as JSON. The list is sent to the custom handler we are creating.

$(function() {
  Shiny.addCustomMessageHandler('add-remove-cards', function(message) {
    
    var card = $.parseHTML(message.card);
    var btn  = message.add_remove
    var card_len = $(".my-cards").length;
    
    if(btn === "add") {
      if(card_len === 0) {
        $(card).insertAfter($('#placeholder'));
      } else {
        $(card).insertAfter($('.my-cards:last'));
      }
    } else {
      $(".my-cards").last().remove()
    }
  });
});

We can get the elements of the R list with message.card and message.add_remove. If the add button was clicked and no card has been inserted yet, we will create the first card after the placeholder id. If a card already exists, we will be placing the HTML after the last existing card. If we want to remove cards, we are going to remove the last card. So certainly less flexible than removeUI and insertUI. However, one can adjust the function’s functionality. The custom message handler was added via Shiny.addCustomMessageHandler.

From JavaScript to R – JavaScript method Shiny.onInputChange

Now, we will be discussing how to send a message from JavaScript to R. We can do that with the JavaScript method Shiny.onInputChange.

$("button").click(function() {
    var id = this.id;
    Shiny.setInputValue("button_clicked", id, {priority: "event"})
});

When a button is clicked, we get the id and will send it to R, which will send it then again to JavaScript. That is not very efficient and I should have included the click event in the previous function so that we do not have to send it from JavaScript to R and then back to JavaScript again. However, I left the code for educational purposes 🙂

R Shiny Server-Side

Because everything happens in the Browser with jQuery and JavaScript, the server-side is very simple.

server <- function(input, output, session) {

  shiny::observeEvent(input$remove | input$add, {
    
    cards(
      item = boot_cards(
        input$header_add,
        input$body_add
      ), 
      button = input$button_clicked
    )
    
  })

}

When either action button is clicked we send the information about what button is clicked from R to JavaScript where we then add or delete the cards dynamically.

Shiny Tutorial You Might Be Interested In

That was the tutorial. I have barely been using JavaScript and this is my first time attempting to create my own handler in R Shiny, so I am sure there are a lot of improvements to be made. If you have any feedback or suggestions for feedback, I would highly appreciate it. Thanks for reading

 

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