# Deep attractors: Where deep learning meets chaos

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“) training_loop(ds_train)

}

“`

After two hundred epochs, overall loss is at 2.67, with the MSE component at 1.8 and FNN at 0.09.

### Obtaining the attractor from the test set

We use the test set to inspect the latent code:

# A tibble: 6,242 x 10 V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7 V8 V9 V10 <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> 1 0.439 0.401 -0.000614 -0.0258 -0.00176 -0.0000276 0.000276 0.00677 -0.0239 0.00906 2 0.415 0.504 0.0000481 -0.0279 -0.00435 -0.0000970 0.000921 0.00509 -0.0214 0.00921 3 0.389 0.619 0.000848 -0.0240 -0.00661 -0.000171 0.00106 0.00454 -0.0150 0.00794 4 0.363 0.729 0.00137 -0.0143 -0.00652 -0.000244 0.000523 0.00450 -0.00594 0.00476 5 0.335 0.809 0.00128 -0.000450 -0.00338 -0.000307 -0.000561 0.00407 0.00394 -0.000127 6 0.304 0.828 0.000631 0.0126 0.000889 -0.000351 -0.00167 0.00250 0.0115 -0.00487 7 0.274 0.769 -0.000202 0.0195 0.00403 -0.000367 -0.00220 -0.000308 0.0145 -0.00726 8 0.246 0.657 -0.000865 0.0196 0.00558 -0.000359 -0.00208 -0.00376 0.0134 -0.00709 9 0.224 0.535 -0.00121 0.0162 0.00608 -0.000335 -0.00169 -0.00697 0.0106 -0.00576 10 0.211 0.434 -0.00129 0.0129 0.00606 -0.000306 -0.00134 -0.00927 0.00820 -0.00447 # … with 6,232 more rows

As a result of the FNN regularizer, the latent code units should be ordered roughly by decreasing variance, with a sharp drop appearing some place (if the FNN weight has been chosen adequately).

For a `knn_weight`

of 10, we do see a drop after the first two units:

# A tibble: 1 x 10 V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7 V8 V9 V10 <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> 1 0.0739 0.0582 1.12e-6 3.13e-4 1.43e-5 1.52e-8 1.35e-6 1.86e-4 1.67e-4 4.39e-5

So the model indicates that the Lorenz attractor can be represented in two dimensions. If we nonetheless want to plot the complete (reconstructed) state space of three dimensions, we should reorder the remaining variables by magnitude of variance^{1}. Here, this results in three projections of the set `V1`

, `V2`

and `V4`

:

## Wrapping up (for this time)

At this point, we’ve seen how to reconstruct the Lorenz attractor from data we did not train on (the test set), using an autoencoder regularized by a custom *false nearest neighbors* loss. It is important to stress that at no point was the network presented with the expected solution (attractor) – training was purely unsupervised.

This is a fascinating result. Of course, thinking practically, the next step is to obtain predictions on heldout data. Given how long this text has become already, we reserve that for a follow-up post. And again *of course*, we’re thinking about other datasets, especially ones where the true state space is not known beforehand. What about measurement noise? What about datasets that are not completely deterministic^{2}? There is a lot to explore, stay tuned – and as always, thanks for reading!

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