Shiny: Add/Removing Modules Dynamically

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Shiny modules provide a great way to organize and container-ize your code for
building complex Shiny applications as well as protecting namespace collisions.
I highly recommend starting with the excellent documentation from Rstudio.
In this post, I am going to cover how to implement modules with
insertUI/removeUI so that you DRY, clear server-side overhead, and encapsulate
duplicative-ish shiny input names in their own namespace.

Normally when developing an application, each input provides a unique parameter
for the output and it is specified by a unique ID. The example below illustrates
a shiny app that allows the end user to specify the variables for regression.

cols <- sort(unique(names(mtcars)[names(mtcars) != 'mpg']))
ui <- fluidPage(
               tags$h3('Build a Linear Model for MPG'),
                           'Select dependent variables',
                           choices = cols,
                           selected = cols[1:2],
                           multiple = TRUE)),
        column(4, verbatimTextOutput('lmSummary')),
        column(4, plotOutput('diagnosticPlot'))
server <- function(input, output) {
    lmModel <- reactive({lm(sprintf('mpg ~ %s', paste(input$vars, collapse = '+')),
                  data = mtcars)})
    output$lmSummary <- renderPrint({

    output$diagnosticPlot <- renderPlot({
        par(mfrow = c(2,2))
shinyApp(ui = ui, server = server)

There is no need to worry about namespace collisions here because you can
directly control the unique-ness of each input control. Note: If you
accidentally duplicate the id, Shiny is not going to tell you that from the
R console. If you open up the browser devtools, you will find an error like

Creating insertUI/removeUI Modules

Now, one linear model is great to start, but I want to try out several
different models with different variables. I could select the variables,
take a screenshot of each model, and piece them all together later but I’m
trying to make it much easier for the end user. Wrapping the app above into a
module requires a UI function. The NS function is a convenience function to
create a namespace for the input IDs. In short, when input IDs are created
later on they will be pre-fixed with lmModelid.

lmUI <- function(id) {
  ns <- shiny::NS(id)

This particular module UI may look a bit sparse to other examples. The UI that
the end user sees is going to be generated later on with renderUI. All
that this UI needs to do is set the namespace.

Next, the server code needs to be wrapped into a server module. The UI and
server code is going to be combined for use with renderUI. I also added in a
delete button that will be the input for removing UI controls. The rendered
UI is also wrapped with a div id. To keep track of each UI Controls, I’m
using environment(ns)[['namespace']] which is a fancy way to pull out the
namespace from session$ns. environment gets the environment (space to look
in for values; similar to namespace) of ns which is storing the namespace id.
Environments are an advanced concept in R which you can find details on at
from Advanced R from Hadley Wickham
and also from R Language Definition

lmModelModule <- function(input, output, session) {
  lmModel <- reactive({
    lm(sprintf('mpg ~ %s',paste(input$vars, collapse = '+')), data = mtcars)
  output[['lmModel']] <- renderUI({
    ns <- session$ns
    tags$div(id = environment(ns)[['namespace']],
                   tags$h3('Build a Linear Model for MPG'),
                               'Select dependent variables',
                               choices = cols,
                               selected = cols[1:2],
                               multiple = TRUE)),
                   renderPlot({par(mfrow = c(2,2))
                                icon = shiny::icon('times'),
                                style = 'float: right')

Dynamic UI/Server Logic

The modules can be called just as functions can be called. For ease, just place
the module code at the top of the shiny application script outside of the
main server/ui functions. The main shiny functions below are even shorter than
the workhorse module functions. Even in a small application you can start to
see the benefit of “modularizing” code!

The majority of the code in server is just setting up handling for the module IDs.
The actionButton increments by 1 each time that it is clicked so I’m using it
as an ID number. The id tag is doing double duty here: providing the namespace
for module UI and for the div tag so that we can remove it later on. After
calling the module, you will want to create an action that will respond to
deleting the module. The last observeEvent will create that action
and it will persist with the correct id.

ui <- fluidPage(
    actionButton('addButton', '', icon = icon('plus'))
server <- function(input, output) {
    observeEvent(input$addButton, {
        i <- sprintf('%04d', input$addButton)
        id <- sprintf('lmModel%s', i)
            selector = '#addButton',
            where = "beforeBegin",
            ui = lmUI(id)
        callModule(lmModelModule, id)
        observeEvent(input[[paste0(id, '-deleteButton')]], {
            removeUI(selector = sprintf('#%s', id))
            remove_shiny_inputs(id, input)
shinyApp(ui = ui, server = server)

Cleaning up Server Side

removeUI will delete the contents on the client side, but the inputs will
still exist on the server side. Currently, removing the inputs on the server
side is not implemented in the shiny package. A couple of work-arounds have been
provided here and

remove_shiny_inputs <- function(id, .input) {
    lapply(grep(id, names(.input), value = TRUE), function(i) {
      .subset2(.input, "impl")$.values$remove(i)

I used the latter to pass that all important id to look up all inputs in
that namespace and remove them. Inputs are protected from directly using
input[[inputName]] <- NULL to delete them. For the outputs on the server
side, I haven’t been able to find that much documentation on what happens to it.
I know that they still exist as at least a named entry on the server side.
According to this closed issue,
it is possible to remove them, but it doesn’t appear their name slots go away.
Debugging and using outputOptions still listed the output, but setting the
output to NULL will delete them from what the user sees on the shiny

Final Thoughts

Modules, insertUI, and removeUI have added some very impressive features to
Shiny. It has opened up a much more on-the-fly interface for Shiny
developers. I’m hoping development around these ideas continue. My first crack at this, I didn’t use the NS framework at all, but
essentially used the same method so there is more than one way to do this.
Using NS will save you leg work. Here is an example of my first attempt:

observeEvent(input$add, {
  i <- input$add
  id <- sprintf('%04d', i)
  inputID <- sprintf('input-%s', id)
    selector = "#add",
    ui = tags$div(id = inputID,
                  numericInput(id, 'A number')

Possible enhancment: In the above code, I was using integers from the action button increment so that I could easily see that Shiny was doing what I expected it to
do. An enhancement would be to generate something like a guid so that you
wouldn’t have to worry about what happens when multiple users in the same
app are clicking. This might not be needed if the action button increments are
per user per session. I still have some homework to do on the namespacing in
Shiny and client/server data persistence.

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