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Another R tip. Use seq_len() to avoid The backwards seqeunce bug.

Many R users use the “colon sequence” notation to build sequences. For example:

for(i in 1:5) {
print(paste(i, i*i))
}
#> [1] "1 1"
#> [1] "2 4"
#> [1] "3 9"
#> [1] "4 16"


However, the colon notation can be unsafe as it does not properly handle the empty sequence case:

n <- 0

1:n
#> [1] 1 0


Notice the above example built a reversed sequence, instead of an empty sequence. To avoid this use seq_len():

seq_len(5)
#> [1] 1 2 3 4 5

n <- 0
seq_len(n)
#> integer(0)


integer(0)” is a length zero sequence of integers (not a sequence containing the value zero).