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R can perform the usual mathematical operations, below are the functions:

Arithmetic
•     – subtraction
• *    – multiplication
• /    – division

Trigonometry
• sin      – sine
• cos      – cosine
• tan      – tangent
• asin    – sine inverse
• acos    – cosine inverse
• atan    – tangent inverse

Linear Algebra
•             – element-wise subtraction
• *            – element-wise multiplication
• /            – element-wise division
• %*%        – matrix multiplication
• t            – transpose
• eigen    – eigenvalues and eigenvectors
• solve    – inverse of matrix
• ginv      – generalized inverse, requires MASS package
• rbind    – combines vectors of observations horizontally into matrix class
• cbind    – combines vectors of observations vertically into matrix class

Reference:
1. Kabacoff, R. I. Matrix Algebra. Quick-R. Retrieved April 20, 2013 here.
2. Trigonometric Functions. R Documentation. R.2.15.1