ENCODE project has generated reduced-representation bilsulfite sequencing data for multiple cell lines. The data is organized in an extended bed format with additional columns denoting % methylation and coverage per base. Luckily, this sort of generic % methylation information can be read in by R package methylKit, which is a package for analyzing basepair resolution 5mC and 5hmC data.
The code snippets below show how to read RRBS bed file produced by ENCODE. But, let’s first download the files.
Unfortunately, methylKit currently can not read them directly because the track definition line causes a problem. It should be deleted from each bed file. Ideally, methylKit should be able to skip over lines (this issue should be fixed in later versions)
For now, we have to use some unix tools to remove the first lines from the bed files. You run the code below in your terminal. This set of commands will delete the first line from every *.gz file in the directory so be careful.
for files in *.gz
gzip -dc "$files" | tail +2 | gzip -c > "$files".tmp
if [ "$?" -eq 0 ]; then
mv "$files".tmp "$files"
Now we can read the files using methylKit. The pipeline argument defines which columns in the file are corresponding to chr,start,end,strand, percent methylation and coverage:
You can also read multiple files at a time:
Since we have read the files and now they are methylKit objects, we can use all of the methylKit functionality on these objects. For example, the code below plots the distribution of methylation % for covered bases.
getMethylationStats(obj[], plot = TRUE)