(This article was first published on

**Jeromy Anglim's Blog: Psychology and Statistics**, and kindly contributed to R-bloggers)I was recently asked about Generalised Estimating Equations (GEEs). I haven’t yet used the technique, but it’s on my list of things to learn more about. This post catalogues some of the Internet resources on GEEs.**General Resources**

- Hanley et al (2003,
*Generalized Estimating Equations: An Orientation) provide an introduction to GEEs with an emphasis on epidemiological examples. It is designed to be accessible to non-statisticians.* - Horton and Lipsitz (1999,
*Review of Software to Fit GEE*) provide an overview of generalized estimating equations and review several statistical packages (SAS, Stata, SUDAAN, S-Plus). Note that the review took place in 1999. Software has changed. The review does not include the more recent R packages or GENLIN in SPSS.

**R Resources**

- Halekoh, Hojsgaard, and Yan (2006,
*R Package geepack for Generalized Estimating Equations*) discuss theory and use of the R package geepack. Hojsgaard (2006) posted a presentation related to the package. Zuur et al (2009) have a book (Chapter 12 is on GEEs) and they provide R code examples using geeglm on their website (see “Chapter12.r”). - There’s the gee package. Everitt and Hothorn show an example of using gee.

**SPSS Resources**

- SPSS provides an outline of the features in GENLIN. At the time of writing GENLIN was available as part of the “Advanced Statistics” add-on module. In my version it shows up under the Analyze – Generalized Linear Models menu.
- SPSS Advanced Models (Chapter 7 of SPSS Advanced Models(tm) – Generalied Estimating Equations): This document goes through in detail the various options that are available in SPSS.
- UCLA has a tutorial on using GENLIN in SPSS
- David Garson discusses the procedure extensively. Discussion is grounded in SPSS.

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