**Are you cereal? » R**, and kindly contributed to R-bloggers)

Here I demonstrate a simple way to code Conway's game of life (GoL) in R and to produce the animation above. Cellular automata in R are usually painfully slow if you iterate through all grid cells in an array. A couple of years ago my friend **Martin Weiser** came with an idea to avoid the individual iterations. He suggested to make GoL in R fast by taking the advantage of the somewhat optimized matrix operations. This is how it works:

**1.** You have an rectangular array (matrix) of living (1) and dead (0) cells. You need to figure out what is the number **Ni** of living cells in the neighborhood of each focal cell **i**.

**2.** Once you know **Ni**, you change the state of the focal cell **i** accordingly (to 0 or to 1; using the rules of GoL). However, iterating through all cells **i** would take ages in R. What you first need to do is to **make 8 copies of the original array**. Then:

- In copy 1 you delete the leftmost column and add column of zeroes to the very right.

- In copy 2 you do the opposite.

- In copy 3 you delete the uppermost row and add row of zeroes to the bottom.

- In copy 4 you delete the row at the bottom and add a row of zeroes to the very top.

So you are essentially shifting the copies of the original array by 1 position to the left, right, up and down.

**3.** Then you do similar thing with copies 5-8 but now you shift these by 1 position diagonally. I am sure you can figure it out.

**4.** Next, you stack all of the copies ("sum them up" using the + operator in R) and this will give you a new array of **Ni** values.

**5.** In the next step you use logical subscripting to apply the rules of GoL (conditional on the array of **Ni** values) to the original array.

**6.** You go to step 1.

In R this implementation works MUCH faster than any looping solution. In MatLab you would do this by using the the **shift** function and so your code would be even simpler. Also note that in reality the processor does actually iterate through all grid cells; the solution presented here does not make all of the iterations happen at the same time. My solution only hides the iteration process by using the R-optimized form of matrix operations and logical subscripting.

See the code below for how it is actually done. Note that you may run out of memory if you specify a very large array. Also, make sure to install the **caTools** library. Have fun!

# library that allows the animated .gif export library(caTools) # The game.of.life() function ------------------ # Arguments: # side - side of the game of life arena (matrix) # steps - number of animation steps # filename - name of the animated gif file game.of.life <- function(side, steps, filename){ # the sideXside matrix, filled up with binomially # distributed individuals X <- matrix(nrow=side, ncol=side) X[] <- rbinom(side^2,1,0.4) # array that stores all of the simulation steps # (so that it can be exported as a gif) storage <- array(0, c(side, side, steps)) # the simulation for (i in 1:steps) { # make the shifted copies of the original array allW = cbind( rep(0,side) , X[,-side] ) allNW = rbind(rep(0,side),cbind(rep(0,side-1),X[-side,-side])) allN = rbind(rep(0,side),X[-side,]) allNE = rbind(rep(0,side),cbind(X[-side,-1],rep(0,side-1))) allE = cbind(X[,-1],rep(0,side)) allSE = rbind(cbind(X[-1,-1],rep(0,side-1)),rep(0,side)) allS = rbind(X[-1,],rep(0,side)) allSW = rbind(cbind(rep(0,side-1),X[-1,-side]),rep(0,side)) # summation of the matrices X2 <- allW + allNW + allN + allNE + allE + allSE + allS + allSW # the rules of GoL are applied using logical subscripting X3 <- X X3[X==0 & X2==3] <- 1 X3[X==1 & X2<2] <- 0 X3[X==1 & X2>3] <- 0 X <- X3 # each simulation step is stored storage[,,i] <- X2 # note that I am storing the array of Ni values - # - this is in order to make the animation prettier } storage <- storage/max(storage) # scaling the results # to a 0-1 scale # writing the results into an animated gif write.gif(storage, filename, col="jet", delay=5) } game.of.life(side=150, steps=300, file="conway.gif")

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