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Yesterday’s post started to explore the nice additions which the new C++11 standard is bringing to the language. One particularly interesting feature are *lambda functions* which resemble the anonymous functions R programmers have enjoyed all along. This shows a simple example.

First, we again make sure the compiler knows that we want C++11:

```
Sys.setenv("PKG_CXXFLAGS"="-std=c++11")
```

We will revisit an earlier example on `stl::transform`

but use a lamba function

```
#include <Rcpp.h>
using namespace Rcpp;
// [[Rcpp::export]]
std::vector<double> transformEx(const std::vector<double>& x) {
std::vector<double> y(x.size());
std::transform(x.begin(), x.end(), y.begin(),
[](double x) { return x*x; } );
return y;
}
```

In this example, the function being swept over all elements of `x`

does not have to be declared as a separate function as we did here but can be defined *inline* as we would in R. The return type is deduced automatically, similar to the use auto `auto`

in the previous C++11 example. We can run the example:

```
x <- c(1,2,3,4)
transformEx(x)
```

[1] 1 4 9 16

Unsurprisingly, the result is the same. We can also retake the second example from the previous post:

```
#include <Rcpp.h>
using namespace Rcpp;
// [[Rcpp::export]]
NumericVector transformEx2(NumericVector x, NumericVector y) {
NumericVector z(x.size());
std::transform(x.begin(), x.end(), y.begin(), z.begin(),
[](double x, double y) { return sqrt(x*x + y*y); } );
return z;
}
```

It also matches the previous result.

```
x <- c(1,2,3,4)
y <- c(2,2,3,3)
transformEx2(x,y)
```

[1] 2.236 2.828 4.243 5.000

Once again, we need to remind the reader that this still requires setting the `-std=c++11`

option for `g++`

, and that CRAN will not allow this in uploads, at least not yet. In the meantime, C++11 can of course be used for non-CRAN projects.

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