**Wiekvoet**, and kindly contributed to R-bloggers)

In this post I extend the multiplicative Bayesian sensory profiling model with effects for rounds and sessions. Is is not a difficult extension, but it brings the need for informative priors into the model. I do believe round and session effects exist, but, they are small. The Bayesian paradigm allows to employ small directly in the model.

### Rounds

#### Implementation of a round effect

fit[i] <- …+ (mProduct[Product[i]] + mRound[Round[i]])*sPanelist[Panelist[i]]

The second part of the round effect is the hyperdistribution for mRound. Rather than making this uninformative, I was this to be informative, in order to suggest these effects are small. mRound is normal distributed with precision tauRound

mRound[i] ~ dnorm(0,tauRound)

The prior is on the distribution of tauRound. The associated standard deviation is from a half normal distribution with standard deviation 1/2 (precision 4, sd = 1/sqrt(precision)). Hence sdRound is larger than 0 and probably less than 1 (two standard deviations).

tauRound <- 1/(sdRound^2)

sdRound ~ dnorm(0,4) %_% T(0,)

The construction %_% T(0,) needs explanation. Basically T(0,) adapts the distribution to be larger than 0 lower than infinite. JAGS is happily using the format dnorm(0,4) T(0,). However since the model is written in R and stored as R model, this is an illegal statement: an operator is needed. Hence the dummy instruction %_%. R is happy and thinks %_% will be resolved at runtime. Subsequently write.model finds this operator and removes it before it writes the model to the temp file, so JAGS does not know it was there at some point. Everybody happy.

#### Interpretation of the round effect

In terms of interpretation, there are two aspects. First of all, what is the size of the specific rounds. If the first round has a clear effect, this may mean that an improved palate cleanser can improve the data. The second aspect is the size of the round effect as such. If the effect is large, then it is possible that the tasting protocol needs to be adapted. Both of these are a matter of judgement rather than science.

### Session effect

The session effect is a slightly different kind of beast as the round effect. In pure ANOVA terms, it states that scores of one day are different, lower or higher, than another day. Unless one thinks that a product changes between days, this is actually an improbable effect. It is much more probable that for each panelist one day is different from the second day. In terms of mixed models, panelist * day is a random effect. Given the way this is introduced, the effect is additive on top of the panelist effect. Hence it is not dependent on panelists scale usage.

fit[i] <- … + mSessionPanelist[Session[i],Panelist[i]] + …

The prior for mSessionPanelist[ ] is the same as for mRound[ ].

Interpretation of the SessionPanelist effect is more simple than for rounds. There is not really much point in looking at each individual result, unless there is reason to suspect high variation for a specific panelist. Hence only the standard deviation is extracted from JAGS. A big standard deviation means that the panel is unsure and needs more training on the associated descriptor.

### Results

Jags output shows a low value for n.eff and Rhat a bit larger than 1 for the variable sdSessionPanelist. It appears this parameter has some difficulty mixing and updating. This is also the reason why the number of iterations has been increased to 20000.

It seems round is a bit more important than PanelistSession. The round effect is showing a large value for the first round, hence perhaps a palate cleanser might be in order. The second round has a similar negative effect, perhaps a contrast effect to the big effect of the first round.

Inference for Bugs model at “/tmp/RtmpJUFGM7/mijnmodel.txt”, fit using jags,

4 chains, each with 20000 iterations (first 10000 discarded), n.thin = 10

n.sims = 4000 iterations saved

mu.vect sd.vect 2.5% 25% 50% 75% 97.5% Rhat n.eff

Productdiff[1] 0.502 0.274 -0.022 0.318 0.501 0.684 1.052 1.001 4000

Productdiff[2] 2.109 0.288 1.542 1.924 2.110 2.294 2.681 1.001 4000

Productdiff[3] 1.607 0.282 1.059 1.419 1.610 1.796 2.159 1.001 4000

Productdiff[4] 0.657 0.272 0.132 0.478 0.651 0.842 1.202 1.001 4000

Productdiff[5] 0.155 0.268 -0.373 -0.026 0.153 0.337 0.674 1.001 4000

Productdiff[6] -1.452 0.273 -1.989 -1.639 -1.454 -1.268 -0.920 1.001 4000

Productdiff[7] 0.281 0.271 -0.252 0.100 0.279 0.465 0.806 1.001 4000

Productdiff[8] -0.222 0.270 -0.751 -0.400 -0.221 -0.037 0.313 1.001 4000

Productdiff[9] -1.829 0.283 -2.391 -2.018 -1.826 -1.643 -1.268 1.001 4000

Productdiff[10] -0.377 0.265 -0.897 -0.553 -0.381 -0.200 0.145 1.001 4000

Productdiff[11] 0.541 0.270 0.032 0.354 0.535 0.725 1.078 1.001 4000

Productdiff[12] 0.038 0.270 -0.482 -0.141 0.038 0.221 0.562 1.001 4000

Productdiff[13] -1.569 0.276 -2.114 -1.753 -1.573 -1.383 -1.021 1.001 4000

Productdiff[14] -0.117 0.266 -0.638 -0.300 -0.114 0.060 0.402 1.001 4000

Productdiff[15] 0.260 0.264 -0.255 0.080 0.257 0.436 0.795 1.001 4000

gsd 1.611 0.068 1.482 1.564 1.608 1.655 1.747 1.001 4000

mRound[1] 0.424 0.258 -0.063 0.251 0.409 0.585 0.956 1.001 4000

mRound[2] -0.417 0.264 -0.963 -0.582 -0.401 -0.241 0.060 1.001 3300

mRound[3] 0.272 0.250 -0.198 0.112 0.261 0.425 0.807 1.001 3300

mRound[4] -0.191 0.255 -0.737 -0.346 -0.179 -0.024 0.296 1.001 4000

mRound[5] -0.275 0.245 -0.796 -0.430 -0.262 -0.111 0.178 1.001 4000

mRound[6] 0.090 0.244 -0.406 -0.058 0.089 0.240 0.574 1.001 4000

meanProduct[1] 6.973 0.202 6.587 6.837 6.971 7.114 7.360 1.001 4000

meanProduct[2] 6.471 0.196 6.089 6.343 6.470 6.603 6.851 1.001 3500

meanProduct[3] 4.864 0.207 4.463 4.725 4.864 5.000 5.275 1.001 4000

meanProduct[4] 6.316 0.193 5.941 6.188 6.311 6.445 6.702 1.001 4000

meanProduct[5] 6.693 0.195 6.312 6.564 6.694 6.822 7.080 1.001 4000

meanProduct[6] 6.433 0.192 6.039 6.304 6.438 6.564 6.800 1.001 4000

sdPanelist 0.959 0.176 0.646 0.837 0.943 1.064 1.350 1.001 4000

sdProduct 0.896 0.393 0.427 0.638 0.804 1.049 1.903 1.001 4000

sdRound 0.425 0.170 0.167 0.307 0.401 0.512 0.830 1.002 3000

sdSessionPanelist 0.237 0.147 0.020 0.119 0.217 0.336 0.560 1.024 300

For each parameter, n.eff is a crude measure of effective sample size,

and Rhat is the potential scale reduction factor (at convergence, Rhat=1).

### Discussion

### R code

library(SensoMineR)

library(coda)

library(R2jags)

FullContrast <- function(n) {

UseMethod(‘FullContrast’,n)

}

FullContrast.default <- function(n) stop(‘FullContrast only takes integer and factors’)

FullContrast.integer <- function(n) {

mygrid <- expand.grid(v1=1:n,v2=1:n)

mygrid <- mygrid[mygrid$v1<mygrid$v2,]

rownames(mygrid) <- 1:nrow(mygrid)

as.matrix(mygrid)

}

FullContrast.factor <- function(n) {

FullContrast(nlevels(n))

}

data(chocolates)

data_list <- with(sensochoc,list(Panelist = as.numeric(Panelist),

nPanelist = nlevels(Panelist),

Product = as.numeric(Product),

nProduct = nlevels(Product),

Round = Rank,

nRound = length(unique(Rank)),

Session = Session,

nSession = length(unique(Session)),

y=CocoaA,

N=nrow(sensochoc)))

data_list$Productcontr <- FullContrast(sensochoc$Product)

data_list$nProductcontr <- nrow(data_list$Productcontr)

model.file <- file.path(tempdir(),’mijnmodel.txt’)

mymodel <- function() {

# core of the model

for (i in 1:N) {

fit[i] <- grandmean + mPanelist[Panelist[i]] + mSessionPanelist[Session[i],Panelist[i]] +

(mProduct[Product[i]] + mRound[Round[i]]) * sPanelist[Panelist[i]]

#

y[i] ~ dnorm(fit[i],tau)

}

# grand mean and residual

tau ~ dgamma(0.001,0.001)

gsd <- sqrt(1/tau)

grandmean ~ dnorm(0,.001)

# variable Panelist distribution

for (i in 1:nPanelist) {

mPanelist[i] ~ dnorm(0,tauPanelist)

}

tauPanelist ~ dgamma(0.001,0.001)

sdPanelist <- sqrt(1/tauPanelist)

# Product distribution

for (i in 1:nProduct) {

mProduct[i] ~ dnorm(0,tauProduct)

}

tauProduct ~ dgamma(0.001,0.001)

sdProduct <- sqrt( 1/tauProduct)

for (i in 1:nRound) {

mRound[i] ~ dnorm(0,tauRound)

}

tauRound <- 1/(sdRound^2)

sdRound ~ dnorm(0,4) %_% T(0,)

for (i in 1:nSession) {

for (j in 1:nPanelist) {

mSessionPanelist[i,j] ~ dnorm(0,tauSessionPanelist)

}

}

tauSessionPanelist <- 1/(sdSessionPanelist^2)

sdSessionPanelist ~ dnorm(0,4) %_% T(0,)

#

# distribution of the multiplicative effect

for (i in 1:nPanelist) {

sPanelist[i] <- exp(EsPanelist[i])

EsPanelist[i] ~ dnorm(0,9)

}

# getting the interesting data

# true means for Panelist

for (i in 1:nPanelist) {

meanPanelist[i] <- grandmean + mPanelist[i] +

mean(mSessionPanelist[1:nSession,i]) +

( mean(mProduct[1:nProduct]) + mean(mRound[1:nRound]))*sPanelist[i]

}

# true means for Product

for (i in 1:nProduct) {

meanProduct[i] <- grandmean +

mean(mPanelist[1:nPanelist]) +

mean(mSessionPanelist[1:nSession,1:nPanelist]) +

(mProduct[i] + mean(mRound[1:nRound]) )*exp(mean(EsPanelist[1:nPanelist]))

}

for (i in 1:nProductcontr) {

Productdiff[i] <- meanProduct[Productcontr[i,1]]-meanProduct[Productcontr[i,2]]

}

}

write.model(mymodel,con=model.file)

inits <- function() list(

grandmean = rnorm(1,3,1),

mPanelist = c(0,rnorm(data_list$nPanelist-1)) ,

mProduct = c(0,rnorm(data_list$nProduct-1)) ,

EsPanelist = rnorm(data_list$nPanelist) ,

tau = runif(1,1,2),

tauPanelist = runif(1,1,3),

tauProduct = runif(1,1,3),

mRound = rnorm(data_list$nRound),

sdRound = abs(rnorm(1)),

mSessionPanelist= matrix(rnorm(data_list$nPanelist*data_list$nSession),nrow=data_list$nSession),

sdSessionPanelist = abs(rnorm(1))

)

#parameters <- c(‘sdPanelist’,’sdProduct’,’gsd’,’meanPanelist’,’meanProduct’,’Productdiff’,’sPanelist’,’sdRound’,’mRound’)

parameters <- c(‘sdPanelist’,’sdProduct’,’gsd’,’meanProduct’,’Productdiff’,’sdRound’,’mRound’,’sdSessionPanelist’)

jagsfit <- jags(data=data_list,inits=inits,model.file=model.file,parameters.to.save=parameters,n.chains=4,DIC=FALSE,n.iter=20000)

jagsfit

#plot(jagsfit)

jagsfit.mc <- as.mcmc(jagsfit)

#plot(jagsfit.mc)

fitsummary <- summary(jagsfit.mc)

# extract differences

Productdiff <- fitsummary$quantiles[ grep(‘Productdiff’,rownames(fitsummary$quantiles)),]

# extract differences different from 0

data_list$Productcontr[Productdiff[,1]>0 | Productdiff[,5]<0,]

# get the product means

ProductMean <- fitsummary$statistics[ grep(‘meanProduct’,rownames(fitsummary$quantiles)),]

rownames(ProductMean) <- levels(sensochoc$Product)

ProductMean

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**Wiekvoet**.

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