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Square in R, In this tutorial, will describe how to calculate the values of a data points to the power of two in R.

We are going to cover the following cases,

1)     Square of a single value in R

2)     Square of Vector in R

3)     Square of the data frame in R

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### Example 1:- Single Value Square in R

Square of Single Value, Let’s store the value in x.

x <- 10
x
 10

Now we stored value 10 in x, let’s calculate the power of x using the ^ symbol

x^2
 100

In another way, can calculate based on the * symbol

x**2
 100

or

x*x
 100

### Example 2:-

Square of a vector, Let’s create a vector and calculate a square of two.

vec <- 1:3
vec
 1 2 3

Now, based on the ^ symbol we can calculate the square, Let’s see

vec^2
 1 4 9

Now we can try based on the * symbol

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Instead of the ^ symbol, insert the * symbol

vec * vec
 1 4 9

In another case, simply put

vec**2
 1 4 9

### Example 3:-

Square of a data frame, Let’s create a numerical data frame for square calculation

data <- data.frame(x1 = 1:3,
x2 = 2:4,
x3 = 2)
data
x1 x2 x3
1  1  2  2
2  2  3  2
3  3  4  2

We can apply the same code ^ symbol for square calculation.

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data^2
x1 x2 x3
1  1  4  4
2  4  9  4
3  9 16  4

Let’s calculate  based on * symbol

data**2
x1 x2 x3
1  1  4  4
2  4  9  4
3  9 16  4

or

data*data
x1 x2 x3
1  1  4  4
2  4  9  4
3  9 16  4

Let’s try sapply function for square calculation.

 sapply(data, function(x) x^2)
x1 x2 x3
[1,]  1  4  4
[2,]  4  9  4
[3,]  9 16  4

Look’s fine, Let me know if you are using any other function for the square calculation.

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