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The oro.nifti package is awesome for NeuRoimaging (couldn't help myself). It has functions to read/write images, introduces the S4 nifti class, and has useful plotting functions. There are some limitations and some gotchas that are important to discuss if you are working with these objects in R.

## Dataset Creation

We'll read in some data (a template, example taken from readNIfTI in oro.nifti. We have to download it as most packages aren't allowed to include data (Bioconductor has mostly remedied this for bioinformatics).

library(oro.nifti)
urlfile <- "colin_1mm.tgz"
if (!file.exists(urlfile)){
untar(urlfile)
}
img = cal_img(img)


The img object read in is of class nifti, has a series of slots (remember S4 object, not S3), and the print method produces information about the NIfTI header.

class(img)

[1] "nifti"
attr(,"package")
[1] "oro.nifti"

print(img)

NIfTI-1 format
Type            : nifti
Data Type       : 2 (UINT8)
Bits per Pixel  : 8
Slice Code      : 0 (Unknown)
Intent Code     : 0 (None)
Qform Code      : 2 (Aligned_Anat)
Sform Code      : 2 (Aligned_Anat)
Dimension       : 181 x 217 x 181 x 1
Pixel Dimension : 1 x 1 x 1 x 0
Voxel Units     : mm
Time Units      : sec

slotNames(img)

[1] ".Data"          "sizeof_hdr"     "data_type"      "db_name"
[5] "extents"        "session_error"  "regular"        "dim_info"
[9] "dim_"           "intent_p1"      "intent_p2"      "intent_p3"
[13] "intent_code"    "datatype"       "bitpix"         "slice_start"
[17] "pixdim"         "vox_offset"     "scl_slope"      "scl_inter"
[21] "slice_end"      "slice_code"     "xyzt_units"     "cal_max"
[25] "cal_min"        "slice_duration" "toffset"        "glmax"
[29] "glmin"          "descrip"        "aux_file"       "qform_code"
[33] "sform_code"     "quatern_b"      "quatern_c"      "quatern_d"
[37] "qoffset_x"      "qoffset_y"      "qoffset_z"      "srow_x"
[41] "srow_y"         "srow_z"         "intent_name"    "magic"
[45] "extender"       "reoriented"

hist(img)


### Array operation

Now, we can do simple operations on this object like any other array. The problem is that certain operations do not (some rightfully so) return a nifti object.

For example, let's get an indicator if the value is greater than 400000. (This is an MRI and has arbitrary units).

mask = img > 400000

NIfTI-1 format
Type            : nifti
Data Type       : 2 (UINT8)
Bits per Pixel  : 8
Slice Code      : 0 (Unknown)
Intent Code     : 0 (None)
Qform Code      : 2 (Aligned_Anat)
Sform Code      : 2 (Aligned_Anat)
Dimension       : 181 x 217 x 181 x 1
Pixel Dimension : 1 x 1 x 1 x 0
Voxel Units     : mm
Time Units      : sec

[1] "nifti"
attr(,"package")
[1] "oro.nifti"


We see a nifti object is returned, with all the header information contained. Great! Let's get an indicator of values greater than 400000 but less than 600000.

mask_2 = img > 400000 & img < 600000

[1] "array"


We see that this operation returned an array, not a nifti object. That's kind of unexpected, but probably conservative. For example, if this had been 2 different nifti objects and you were performing the subsetting, which object's information should you use?

We see the same behavior when multiplying (or subtracting, etc) two nifti objects.

img_masked = img * mask

[1] "array"


We know the object is an array but we may want a nifti object.

### fslr Helper functions

The niftiarr function in fslr inputs a nifti object and an array, and returns a nifti object with the array in the @.Data slot, copying over the image header information from the input nifti object.

### need the development version
# library(devtools)
# devtools::install_github("muschellij2/fslr")
library(fslr)

[1] "nifti"
attr(,"package")
[1] "oro.nifti"


### Other ways to skin the cat

Another way of masking the image is to subset the values of the image that are not in the mask and setting those values to (0) (or some other value).

img_masked_2 = img

[1] "nifti"
attr(,"package")
[1] "oro.nifti"


We see that this correctly returns an object of class nifti. One potential issue with this direction is that cal_min and cal_max slots on the resulting nifti object not the range of the image. This is problematic because orthographic and image.nifti both use this slot to determine grayscale ranges for plotting and writeNIfTI errors if these values don't match. The cal_img function in fslr is a simple helper function that will set these values to the respective values of the range of the data.

range(img_masked_2)

[1]      0 791972

[1]      0 791972

[1]      0 791972


Note, sometimes readNIfTI sets the cal_min and cal_max slots both to (0), which may be a result of how the nifti was created.

#### Equivalent Operations

We see that after these operations done 2 different ways, the resulting nifti objects are equivalent.

all.equal(img_masked, img_masked_2)

[1] TRUE


## Data Typing and Writing nifti objects

I've worked with oro.nifti for some time, and I wanted to also discuss writing nifti objects. Many operations preserve the data type of the array in the nifti object, such as if the data were integers, an array of integers returned. Other times, the data type changes, such as if you smoothed an image of integers, the resulting array would have values that are not integers, but probably continuous values. When plotting the data or operating with the R object, this is not generally an issue because any extraction of the information will take the nifti object's @.Data slot and return that array.

This presents a problem when you write nifti objects using the writeNIfTI function.

## Slots datatype and bitpix

In a nifti object, the datatype and bitpix fields specify what type the data is and the level of precision stored in the NIfTI file. For example, if you have binary data, the
datatype would be a value of 2 for UINT8 (unsigned integer) and the bitpix would be 8 for 8 bits per voxel. These must correspond to each other (i.e. no mismatching). Also, storing data in a type that is what I call “over-storing” (e.g storing binary data in a FLOAT32 format) may make files larger than necessary. Under-storing is much more problematic, however.

### Why you should care about under-storing

If you read in data as integers, did some operations that returned continuous (decimal) objects, and then write the nifti object using the original header information would truncate the data in ways you wouldn't want. In R, the object would look fine, but when you wrote it to disk, it would be truncated.

[email protected]

[1] 8

[email protected]

[1] 2


Let's say we scaled the data by its maximum:

pct = img / max(img)
pct = cal_img(pct)
[email protected]

[1] 8

[email protected]

[1] 2

hist(pct)


### we will explain this in the next section
pct = drop_img_dim(pct)
pct = zero_trans(pct)
pct = onefile(pct)


If we write this to disk, and read the result back in, we see:

par(mfrow=c(3,1))
hist(pct, main="Correct Data")

### Writing out pct without any datatype change - still UINT8
tfile = tempfile()
writeNIfTI(pct, filename = tfile, verbose=TRUE)

writing data at byte = 352

hist(pct2, main="Writing out with no change of datatype/bitpix")

### Writing out pct with datatype change - to FLOAT32
pct = datatype(pct, type_string = "FLOAT32")
writeNIfTI(pct, filename = tfile)
hist(pct3, main="Writing out with changing of datatype/bitpix")


As you can see, you need to change the bitpix and datatype when writing out NIfTI files if you are changing the data type in the array of data in R. We had changed integers to percentages/proportions, and we changed the output to FLOAT32 (for floating point data). Take a look at convert.datatype() and convert.bitpix() for examples of types.

## Other functions for changinag data

We used 3 functions in the last section which changed around pct: drop_img_dim, zero_trans, and onefile.

I want to explain what each of these steps are doing.

### Dropping dimensions

When you read in some data (especially from SPM) into R using readNIfTI, the data can be read in as a 4-dimensional image, with one dimension only being one. For example, if we look at the dimensions of img:

dim(img)

[1] 181 217 181   1

[email protected]_

[1]   4 181 217 181   1   0   0   0

pixdim(img)

[1] 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0


We see that the 4th dimension is 1 and the slot dim_ denotes it's a 4-dimensional object (4 is in the first index). Also, we note that values in the dim_ slot are (0), which is not allowed when writing out:

writeNIfTI(img, filename = tempfile())

Error: all dim elements > dim[1] must be 1
dim/pixdim mismatch


In order to force it to be a 3-dimensional object, drop_img_dim changes all these aspects for the user.

img_3d = drop_img_dim(img)
dim(img_3d)

[1] 181 217 181

[email protected]_

[1]   3 181 217 181   1   1   1   1

pixdim(img_3d)

[1] 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0

tfile = tempfile()
writeNIfTI(img_3d, filename = tfile)


### Unscaling the data

Many times this is not necessary, but some NIfTI files have the scl_slope and scl_inter slots defined. These denote what to multiply and then add to the data to get it in the correct values. zero_trans simply makes scl_slope = 0 and scl_inter = 1.

### Changing NIfTI magic slots

In each NIfTI image, there is a magic slot (see http://nifti.nimh.nih.gov/nifti-1/documentation/nifti1fields/nifti1fields_pages/magic.html):

[email protected]

[1] "ni1"

[email protected]_offset

[1] 0


The NIfTI documentation states:

“ni1” means that the image data is stored in the “.img” file corresponding
to the header file (starting at file offset 0).

We previously wrote out the 3D image, but if we try to read it back in, readNIfTI fails:

readNIfTI(fname = tfile)

Error: This is not a one-file NIfTI format


We can change the default in readNIfTI to onefile = FALSE, but nothing changes:

writeNIfTI(img_3d, filename = tfile, onefile = FALSE)

Error: This is not a one-file NIfTI format


If we look in oro.nifti:::.read.nifti.content we see

if (!onefile) {
if ([email protected] != "ni1") {
stop("This is not a two-file NIfTI format")
}


We can change this magic to n+1, but we need to change the vox_offset = 352 and that's exactly what onefile() does:

img_3d = onefile(img_3d)
writeNIfTI(img_3d, filename = tfile, onefile = FALSE)

NIfTI-1 format
Type            : nifti
Data Type       : 2 (UINT8)
Bits per Pixel  : 8
Slice Code      : 0 (Unknown)
Intent Code     : 0 (None)
Qform Code      : 2 (Aligned_Anat)
Sform Code      : 2 (Aligned_Anat)
Dimension       : 181 x 217 x 181
Pixel Dimension : 1 x 1 x 1
Voxel Units     : mm
Time Units      : sec


Viola! All these fun little quirks that I hope you don't have to encounter. But if you do, I hope this page helps.