(Voting Systems and Communication Diversity) A large group of voters is to decide between two candidates. Each voter is to vote for either candidate A or candidate B. There are 50 million people who have decided to vote for candidate A and 49 million who have decided to vote for candidate B. An additional 100 million people have no preference what so ever and will each vote by making an...

Nov 23 2021

a. Given the primitive polynomial p(x) = x 3 + x + 1, construct an M = 8 simplex family of waveforms by using the seven m-sequences of length 7 and the all-zero sequence to form eight PSK waveforms. b. Show that an M = 2m simplex pulse alphabet can be formed in this way for any m.

Nov 23 2021

A digital communication system uses an eight-ary orthogonal signaling waveform with two-way diversity. The diversity receiver is capable of recognizing which symbols are jammed and demodulating using only the single unjammed pulse when it is available. The data is protected by a (15, 13) single-error-correcting Reed–Solomon code. a. What is the minimum jammer duty factor that is meaningful...

Nov 23 2021

Partial message jamming can be used against M-ary signaling, either coherent or noncoherent. On a graph of pe versus E b /N 0 for 32-ary orthogonal signaling, sketch the probability of demodulation error against an optimal partial-message jammer by arguing that, for small E b /J=, the duty factor must equal one, and otherwise pe must behave as the reciprocal of E b /J 0 .

Nov 23 2021

A communication channel is subjected to additive burst noise that occurs at random times with a ten-percent duty cycle. This means that the burst noise occupies ten percent of any time interval that is long compared to the duration of individual bursts. During the burst, the signal-to-noise ratio is 0 dB and the additive noise probability density function is unknown; otherwise, the signal-to-noise...

Nov 23 2021

Adiversity system for digital communication sends the same waveform through two additive noise channels so that if one channel is lost, the symbol can still be received correctly through the other. When both channels are working, it is best to combine the received signals prior to a threshold. A binary diversity system sends identical binary FSK signals on two carrier frequencies, f 0 and f 0 ,...

Nov 23 2021

(High–low game.) Suppose that an adversary randomly selects an integer between 0 and 127 inclusively, and you are to find that integer by a sequence of guesses. After each guess you are told whether you are high, low, or correct. You want to make the expected number of your guesses as small as possible, and the adversary wants to choose the integer to make it as large as possible. a. What...

Nov 23 2021

A coherent 32-ary diversity communication channel contains a hardlimiter prior to the matched filter in each diversity channel and the signal energy is divided evenly among the channels. a. Suppose that all channels are equally noisy and that the signal is less than the noise at the hardlimiter input. What is the penalty in E b /N 0 because of the presence of the hardlimiters? b. Now suppose that...

Nov 23 2021

A satellite transponder may contain a nonlinearity that will require extensive numerical computation to study it completely. The flavor of such a problem may be appreciated, however, by looking at a simple discrete-time problem. A discrete-time BPSK waveform with intersymbol interference is (where a k = ±1) and is contaminated by additive gaussian noise and passed through a hardlimiter where...

Nov 23 2021

Find the maximum-likelihood demodulator for a noncoherently received Lary diversity OOK waveform with independent rayleigh fading amplitudes in additive gaussian noise. Give a tight approximation for the probability of bit error for a sixteen-ary square signal constellation if the signal amplitude is multiplied by a gaussian random variable a of mean one and variance σ 2 a , with σ a...

Nov 23 2021

- Mechanical Engineering
- Civil Engineering
- Electrical Engineering
- Chemical Engineering
- Thermodynamics
- Fluid Mechanics
- Digital Electronics
- Strength of Materials
- Electrical Machines
- Structures
- Signals & Systems
- Design and Drafting
- Control System
- Geotechnical Design
- Materials Engineering
- Surveying & Analysis
- Biomedical Engineering
- Fluid Dynamics
- Kinematics
- Truss
- Fluid Flow