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The R software system is primarily command line based so when there are large sets of data it is not easy to browse the data frames. There are various useful functions for working with data frames.

For example, after loading data from a text file we might want to view the first few lines of a set of data. The functions head and tail return the first or last parts of a vector, matrix, table, data frame or function.

Consider the Orange data set that is available in R. We can view the first few lines

> head(Orange)
Tree  age circumference
1    1  118            30
2    1  484            58
3    1  664            87
4    1 1004           115
5    1 1231           120
6    1 1372           142

or the last few lines:

> tail(Orange)
Tree  age circumference
30    5  484            49
31    5  664            81
32    5 1004           125
33    5 1231           142
34    5 1372           174
35    5 1582           177

Another useful function is str, which compactly displays the internal structure of an R object. On this set of data we get:

> str(Orange)
Classes ‘nfnGroupedData’, ‘nfGroupedData’, ‘groupedData’ and 'data.frame':      35 obs. of  3 variables:
$Tree : Ord.factor w/ 5 levels "3"<"1"<"5"<"2"<..: 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 ...$ age          : num  118 484 664 1004 1231 ...
$circumference: num 30 58 87 115 120 142 145 33 69 111 ... - attr(*, "formula")=Class 'formula' length 3 circumference ~ age | Tree .. ..- attr(*, ".Environment")=<environment: R_EmptyEnv> - attr(*, "labels")=List of 2 ..$ x: chr "Time since December 31, 1968"
..$y: chr "Trunk circumference" - attr(*, "units")=List of 2 ..$ x: chr "(days)"
..\$ y: chr "(mm)"

There is quite a bit of additional information attached to this data frame, mainly due to it having more than one class.