**From the Bottom of the Heap - R**, and kindly contributed to R-bloggers)

Argument passing via `…`

is a great feature of the R language, allowing you to write wrappers around existing functions that do not need to list all the arguments of the wrapped function. `…`

is used extensively in S3 methods and in passing graphical parameters on to graphical functions. When writing you own plot methods, using `…`

allows the user of your function to pass arguments like `cex`

, `col`

, `lty`

, etc. on to the plotting function inside your method. You do, however, need to be careful in where you use `…`

and which functions you pass `…`

on to.

Consider the following object `FOO`

that is a data frame with our own class `“foo”`

```
FOO <- data.frame(x = 1:10, y = 1:10)
rownames(FOO) <- LETTERS[1:10]
class(FOO) <- "foo"
```

A simplified `plot()`

method to plot the `x`

and `y`

components of our object, displaying the data as points or text labels might be

```
plot.foo <- function(X, type = c("points","text"), ...) {
x <- X$x
y <- X$y
type <- match.arg(type)
plot(x, type = "n", ...)
if(type == "points") {
points(x, y, ...)
} else {
text(x, y, labels = rownames(x), ...)
}
invisible(x)
}
```

Note that we are passing `…`

on to each of `plot()`

, `points()`

, and `text()`

so our method is very simple. However, if we try to suppress the drawing of axes using the `axes`

argument of `plot.default()`

, our method will generate errors

```
> plot(FOO, axes = FALSE)
Warning message:
In plot.xy(xy.coords(x, y), type = type, ...) :
"axes" is not a graphical parameter
```

Turning warnings into errors, we see that the call to `points()`

is where the warning originates (actually in `plot.xy()`

, frame 5, but `points()`

is the offending code in our method)

```
> options(warn = 2) ## turn warnings to errors
>
> plot(FOO, axes = FALSE)
Error in plot.xy(xy.coords(x, y), type = type, ...) :
(converted from warning) "axes" is not a graphical parameter
> ## look at the call stack
> traceback()
9: doWithOneRestart(return(expr), restart)
8: withOneRestart(expr, restarts[[1L]])
7: withRestarts({
.Internal(.signalCondition(simpleWarning(msg, call), msg,
call))
.Internal(.dfltWarn(msg, call))
}, muffleWarning = function() NULL)
6: .signalSimpleWarning("\"axes\" is not a graphical parameter",
quote(plot.xy(xy.coords(x, y), type = type, ...)))
5: plot.xy(xy.coords(x, y), type = type, ...)
4: points.default(x, y, ...)
3: points(x, y, ...)
2: plot.foo(FOO, axes = FALSE)
1: plot(FOO, axes = FALSE)
```

The warning results from our function passing `axes = FALSE`

on to the lower-level plotting functions. An obvious solution is to process `…`

and strip out any offending non-graphical parameters and then arrange for the calls to use the stripped out `…`

. Doing this is possible, but is very complicated. There is an alternative, simpler solution that is used in several base R functions and suggested to me by Brian Ripley (when I asked about doing this on R-Help for a function in the vegan package). The trick is to have a local, in-line wrapper around `points()`

of the following form:

```
lPoints <- function(..., log, axes, frame.plot, panel.first, panel.last) {
points(...)
}
```

Here we list all the arguments of `plot.default()`

we *don’t* want passed on to the low-level plotting calls, but importantly, they are listed *after* `…`

. The only code in the body of the local function is a call to the low-level graphics function we want to use. Importantly, of the arguments taken by `lPoints()`

only `…`

is passed on to the graphics function it wraps. Because the arguments from `plot.default()`

are named and come after `…`

in the definition of `lPoints()`

, any arguments passed to `lPoints()`

that fully match the named arguments are automatically stripped from the `…`

that is passed on to the wrapped function. Using this trick, we can now write our `plot.foo()`

method like this:

```
plot.foo <- function(X, type = c("points","text"), ...) {
lPoints <- function(..., log, axes, frame.plot,
panel.first, panel.last) points(...)
lText <- function(..., log, axes, frame.plot,
panel.first, panel.last) text(...)
x <- X$x
y <- X$y
type <- match.arg(type)
plot(x, type = "n", ...)
if(type == "points") {
lPoints(x, y, ...)
} else {
lText(x, y, labels = rownames(x), ...)
}
invisible(x)
}
```

Now we can pass arguments to both `plot.default()`

and `points()`

and `text()`

, and the call that raised the warning earlier, now works without complaint:

```
> plot(FOO, axes = FALSE)
>
```

Remember to reset the warning level if you followed the code above

```
options(warn = 0)
```

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