# R GIS: Generalizer for KML Paths

May 3, 2014
By

(This article was first published on theBioBucket*, and kindly contributed to R-bloggers)

I’m posting a recent project’s spin-off, which is a custom line-generalizer which I used for huge KML-paths. Anyone with a less clumpsy approach?

`## line generalizing function: takes two vectors of with x/ycoords ## and return ids of x/y elements which distance to its next element## is shorter than the average distance between consecutive vertices## multiplied by 'fac'check_dist <- function(x, y, fac) {    dm <- as.matrix(dist(cbind(x, y)))        ## supradiagonal holds distance from 1st to 2nd, 2nd to 3rd, etc. element    d <- diag(dm[-1, -ncol(dm)])    mean_dist <- mean(d)    keep <- logical()        ## allways keep first..    keep[1] <- T    for (i in 1:(length(x) - 2)) {        keep[i + 1] <- (d[i] > mean_dist * fac)        message(paste0("Distance from item ", i, " to item ", i + 1, " is: ", d[i]))    }    message(paste0("Treshold is: ", mean_dist * fac))    cat("--\n")    ## .. and always keep last    keep[length(x)] <- T    return(keep)}## Testing function check_dist:x <- rnorm(5)y <- rnorm(5)(keep <- check_dist(x, y, 1.2))plot(x, y)lines(x[keep], y[keep], lwd = 4, col = "green")lines(x, y, lwd = 1, col = "red")text(x, y + 0.1, labels = c(1:length(x)))## exclude vertices by generalization rule. coordinate-nodes with low number of vertices, ## segments with less than 'min_for_gen' vertices will not be simplified, in any case coordinates will be## rounded to 5-th decimal placegeneralize_kml_contour_node <- function(node, min_for_gen, fac) {        require(XML)        LineString <- xmlValue(node, trim = T)        LineStrSplit <- strsplit(unlist(strsplit(LineString, "\\s")), ",")        # filter out empty LineStrings which result from strsplit on '\\s'    LineStrSplit <- LineStrSplit[sapply(LineStrSplit, length) > 0]        # all 3 values are required, in case of error see for missing z-values:    x <- round(as.numeric(sapply(LineStrSplit, "[[", 1, simplify = T)), 5)    y <- round(as.numeric(sapply(LineStrSplit, "[[", 2, simplify = T)), 5)    z <- round(as.numeric(sapply(LineStrSplit, "[[", 3, simplify = T)), 5)        # for lines longer than 'min_for_gen' vertices, generalize LineStrings    if (length(x) >= min_for_gen) {        keep <- check_dist(x, y, fac)        x <- x[keep]        y <- y[keep]        z <- z[keep]        xmlValue(node) <- paste(paste(x, y, z, sep = ","), collapse = " ")                # for all other cases, insert rounded values    } else {        xmlValue(node) <- paste(paste(x, y, z, sep = ","), collapse = " ")    }}## mind to use the appropiate namespace definition: alternatively use: ## c(kml ='http://opengis.net/kml/2.2')kml_generalize <- function(kml_file, min_for_gen, fac) {    doc <- xmlInternalTreeParse(kml_file)    nodes <- getNodeSet(doc, "//kml:LineString//kml:coordinates", c(kml = "http://earth.google.com/kml/2.0"))    mapply(generalize_kml_contour_node, nodes, min_for_gen, fac)    saveXML(doc, paste0(dirname(kml_file), "/simpl_", basename(kml_file)))}## get KML-files and generalize themkml_file <- tempfile(fileext = ".kml")download.file("http://dev.openlayers.org/releases/OpenLayers-2.13.1/examples/kml/lines.kml",               kml_file, mode = "wb")kml_generalize(kml_file, 5, 0.9)shell.exec(kml_file)shell.exec(paste0(dirname(kml_file), "/simpl_", basename(kml_file))) `

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