The new Visual Studio 2017 has built-in support for programming in R and Python. For older versions of Visual Studio, support for these languages has been available via the RTVS and PTVS add-ins, but the new Data Science Workloads in Visual Studio 2017 make them available without a separate add-in. Just choose the "Data Science and analytical applications" option during installation to install everything you need, including Microsoft R Client and the Anaconda Python distribution.
If you're new to the Python capabilities in Visual Studio, this Lap Around Python in VS2017 will provide an overview of the capabilities. The capabilities of RTVS 1.0 — described in detail in this announcement for Visual Studio 2015 — are now available in Visual Studio 2017.
These capabilities are now available in all editions, including Visual Studio Community 2017 which you can download for free here. For more on the new data science workloads, check out the blog post by Shahrokh Mortazavi linked below.
Visual Studio Blog: Build Intelligent Apps Faster with Visual Studio and the Data Science Workload