Using R to add data to maps has been pretty straightforward for a few years now. That said, it seems easier than ever to do things like use map APIs (e.g. Google, Open Street Map), overlay quite complex data visualisations (e.g. “heatmap-style” densities) and even generate animations.
A couple of key R packages in this space: ggmap and gganimate. To illustrate, I’ve used data from the recent New Zealand earthquake to generate some static maps and an animation. Here’s the Github repository and a report published at RPubs. Thanks to Florian Teschner for a great ggmap tutorial which got me started.
My own work in bioinformatics to date has not (sadly!) required much analysis of geospatial data but I can see use cases in many areas – environmental microbiology, for example.