Microsoft R Server has received a new name and a major update: Microsoft ML Server 9.2 is now available. ML Server provides a scalable production platform for R — and now Python — programs. The basic idea is that a local client can push R or Python code and have it operationalized on the remote server. ML Server is also included with the Data Science Virtual Machine and HDInsight Spark clusters on Azure.
The related Microsoft Machine Learning Services provides similar capabilities for in-database computations within SQL Server 2017 (now with Python as well as R) and (in preview) the fully-managed Azure SQL Database. ML Services also provides real-time scoring of trained models, with predictions generated from the data in the database without invoking the R or Python engine.
Learn more about the many updates to Microsoft ML Server 9.2 in the blog post linked below.
Cortana Intelligence and Machine Learning Blog: Introducing Microsoft Machine Learning Server 9.2 Release