# Example 7.34: Propensity scores and causal inference from observational studies

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Propensity scores can be used to help make causal interpretation of observational data more plausible, by adjusting for other factors that may responsible for differences between groups. Heuristically, we estimate the probability of exposure, rather than randomize exposure, as we’d ideally prefer to do. The estimated probability of exposure is the propensity score. If our estimation of the

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