**Colin Fay**, and kindly contributed to R-bloggers]. (You can report issue about the content on this page here)

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Last week, a new version of `{attempt}`

was published on CRAN. This

version includes some improvements in the current code base, and the

addition of new functions.

You can get it with our old friend `install.packages`

```
install.packages("attempt")
```

## News in version 0.3.0

```
library(attempt)
packageVersion("attempt")
```

```
## [1] '0.3.0'
```

Newcomers in this version:

- The
`is_try_error()`

function, that tests if an object is of class

“try-error”.

```
x <- attempt(log(letters), silent = TRUE)
is_try_error(x)
```

```
## [1] TRUE
```

- The
`on_error()`

function, that behaves as`on.exit()`

except it

happens only when there is an error in the function, and can for

example be used to write logs to a file.

```
y <- function(x){
on_error(~ print("ouch")) # or on_error(~ write("error", "error.logs"))
log(x)
}
y(12)
y("a")
[1] 2.484907
Error in log(x) : non-numeric argument to mathematical function
[1] "ouch"
```

`discretly()`

, for removing warnings and message.

```
y <- function(x){
warning("ouch\n")
message("bla")
x * 10
}
y(10)
```

```
## Warning in y(10): ouch
## bla
## [1] 100
```

```
discrete_y <- discretly(y)
discrete_y(10)
```

```
## [1] 100
```

## About `{attempt}`

`{attempt}`

is a package that provides a series of tools for defensive

programming. It’s mainly designed for (package) developers, as it

provides easier ways to handle exceptions and to manipulate functions

for messages, warnings and errors. It’s also a very lightweight package,

as it only depends on `{rlang}`

, which itself has no dependencies.

For example, let’s say you have a function that needs at least one

argument to be not-null. You would be tempted to write something like

this:

```
this <- function(a = NULL, b = NULL, c = NULL){
if (all(is.null(a), is.null(b), is.null(c))){
stop("a, b and c can't be all NULL")
}
list(a, b, c)
}
this()
```

```
## Error in this(): a, b and c can't be all NULL
```

```
# Or
this <- function(a = NULL, b = NULL, c = NULL){
if (all(vapply(c(a, b, c), is.null, logical(1)))){
stop("a, b and c can't be all NULL")
}
list(a, b, c)
}
this()
```

```
## Error in this(): a, b and c can't be all NULL
```

```
this(a = 1)
```

```
## [[1]]
## [1] 1
##
## [[2]]
## NULL
##
## [[3]]
## NULL
```

With `{attempt}`

, you can refactor your code this way:

```
library(attempt)
this <- function(a = NULL, b = NULL, c = NULL){
stop_if_all(c(a, b, c), is.null, "a, b and c can't be all NULL")
list(a, b, c)
}
this()
```

```
## Error: a, b and c can't be all NULL
```

```
# Mappers can also be used
this <- function(a){
stop_if(a, ~ .x < 5, "a must be over 5")
}
this(1)
```

```
## Error: a must be over 5
```

To handle all cases, there is a series of function combining `stop_if`

/

`warn_if`

/ `message_if`

& `all`

, `any`

and `none`

. See `?stop_if`

for a

list of all functions.

The idea being of course that if you have a series of tests, this can

drastically reduce the amount of code at the beginning of the function,

and make it more readable on the long run. So you can refactor this:

```
this <- function(a = NULL, b = NULL, c = NULL){
if (all(is.null(a), is.null(b), is.null(c))){
stop("a, b and c can't be all NULL\n")
}
if (any(vapply(c(a, b, c), function(x) x < 5, logical(1)))){
warning("using input below 5 is not recommended\n")
}
if (!any(c(a == 13, b == 13, c == 13))){
message("No input equal to 13\n")
}
# Do things
}
this()
```

```
## Error in this(): a, b and c can't be all NULL
```

```
this(a = 3)
```

```
## Warning in this(a = 3): using input below 5 is not recommended
## No input equal to 13
```

```
this(a = 10)
```

```
## No input equal to 13
```

To this:

```
this <- function(a = NULL, b = NULL, c = NULL){
stop_if_all(c(a, b, c), is.null, "a, b and c can't be all NULL")
warn_if_any(c(a, b, c), ~ .x < 5, "using input below 5 is not recommended")
message_if_none(c(a, b, c), ~ .x == 13, "No input equal to 13")
# Do things
}
```

The `attempt()`

function, along with `try_catch`

, are friendlier version

of `try()`

and `tryCatch()`

. They behave exactly like the base

functions, but provide an easier interface. For example, if you need to

try something and throw a message if it fails, with base, you’ll do:

```
x <- try(log("a"), silent = TRUE)
if (class(x)[1] == "try-error"){
stop("There was an error in your code")
}
```

```
## Error in eval(expr, envir, enclos): There was an error in your code
```

`attempt()`

provides a concise way to send a message on error:

```
attempt(log("a"), "There was an error in your code")
```

```
## Error: There was an error in your code
```

Adverbs, finally, transform functions behavior:

`silently`

returns nothing unless an error occurs

```
silent_log <- silently(log)
silent_log(1)
silent_log("a")
```

```
## Error in .f(...) : non-numeric argument to mathematical function
```

`surely`

will wrap the function in an`attempt`

call:

```
sure_log <- surely(log)
sure_log(1)
```

```
## [1] 0
```

```
sure_log("a")
```

```
## Error: non-numeric argument to mathematical function
```

- The
`with_message()`

/`with_warning()`

&`without_message()`

/

`without_warning()`

/`discretly()`

functions add or remove messages

and

warnings:

```
matrix(1:3, ncol = 2)
```

```
## Warning in matrix(1:3, ncol = 2): data length [3] is not a sub-multiple or
## multiple of the number of rows [2]
## [,1] [,2]
## [1,] 1 3
## [2,] 2 1
```

```
no_warning_matrix <- without_warning(matrix)
no_warning_matrix(1:3, ncol = 2)
```

```
## [,1] [,2]
## [1,] 1 3
## [2,] 2 1
```

## Know more

See the GitHub repo for more.

**leave a comment**for the author, please follow the link and comment on their blog:

**Colin Fay**.

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