# Le Monde puzzle [#865]

May 5, 2014
By

(This article was first published on Xi'an's Og » R, and kindly contributed to R-bloggers)

A Le Monde mathematical puzzle in combinatorics:

Given a permutation σ of {1,…,5}, if σ(1)=n, the n first values of σ are inverted. If the process is iterated until σ(1)=1, does this always happen and if so what is the maximal  number of iterations? Solve the same question for the set {1,…,2014}.

I ran the following basic R code:

```N=5
tm=0
for (i in 1:10^6){
sig=sample(1:N) #random permutation
t=0;while (sig[1]>1){
n=sig[1]
sig[1:n]=sig[n:1]
t=t+1}
tm=max(t,tm)}
```

obtaining 7 as the outcome. Here is the evolution of the maximum as a function of the number of terms in the set. If we push the regression to N=2014, the predicted value is around 600,000. .. Running a million simulations of the above only gets me to 23,871!A wee reflection lead me to conjecture that the maximum number of steps wN should be satisfy wN=wN-1+N-2. However, the values resulting from the simulations do not grow as fast. Monte Carlo effect or true discrepancy?

Filed under: Books, Kids, R Tagged: Le Monde, mathematical puzzle, R

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