Blog Archives

Example 2014.3: Allow different variances by group

February 27, 2014
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Example 2014.3: Allow different variances by group

One common violation of the assumptions needed for linear regression is heterscedasticity by group membership. Both SAS and R can easily accommodate this setting. Our data today comes from a real example of vitamin D supplementation of milk. Four sup...

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Example 2014.2: Block randomization

January 22, 2014
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Example 2014.2: Block randomization

This week I had to block-randomize some units. This is ordinarily the sort of thing I would do in SAS, just because it would be faster for me. But I had already started work on the project R, using knitr/LaTeX to make a PDF, so it made sense to continue the work in R. RAs is...

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Example 2014.1: "Power" for a binomial probability, plus: News!

January 14, 2014
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Example 2014.1: "Power" for a binomial probability, plus: News!

Hello, folks! I'm pleased to report that Nick and I have turned in the manuscript for the second edition of SAS and R: Data Management, Statistical Analysis, and Graphics. It should be available this summer. New material includes some of our more po...

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Example 10.8: The upper 95% CI is 3.69

December 10, 2012
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Example 10.8: The upper 95% CI is 3.69

Apologies for the long and unannounced break-- the longest since we started blogging, three and a half years ago. I was writing a 2-day course for SAS users to learn R. Contact me if you're interested. And Nick and I are beginning work on the second...

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Example 10.7: Fisher vs. Pearson

October 29, 2012
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Example 10.7: Fisher vs. Pearson

In the early days of the discipline of statistics, R.A. Fisher argued with great vehemence against Egon Pearson (and Jerzy Neyman) over the foundational notions supporting statistical inference. The personal invective recorded is somewhat amusing an...

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Example 10.6: Should Poisson regression ever be used? Negative binomial vs. Poisson regression

October 15, 2012
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Example 10.6: Should Poisson regression ever be used? Negative binomial vs. Poisson regression

In practice, we often find that count data is not well modeled by Poisson regression, though Poisson models are often presented as the natural approach for such data. In contrast, the negative binomial regression model is much more flexible and is therefore likely to fit better, if the data are not Poisson.In example 8.30 we...

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Example 10.5: Convert a character-valued categorical variable to numeric

October 8, 2012
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Example 10.5: Convert a character-valued categorical variable to numeric

In some settings it may be necessary to recode a categorical variable with character values into a variable with numeric values. For example, the matching macro we discussed in example 7.35 will only match on numeric variables. One way to conve...

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Example 10.4: Multiple comparisons and confidence limits

October 1, 2012
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Example 10.4: Multiple comparisons and confidence limits

A colleague is a devotee of confidence intervals. To him, the CI have the magical property that they are immune to the multiple comparison problem-- in other words, he feels its OK to look at a bunch of 95% CI and focus on the ones that appear to exclude the null. This though...

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Example 10.3: Enhanced scatterplot with marginal histograms

September 24, 2012
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Example 10.3: Enhanced scatterplot with marginal histograms

Back in example 8.41 we showed how to make a graphic combining a scatterplot with histograms of each variable. A commenter suggested we change the R graphic to allow post-hoc plotting of, for example, lowess lines. In addition, there are further refinements to be made. In this R-only entry, we'll make the figure...

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Example 10.2: Custom graphic layouts

September 17, 2012
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Example 10.2: Custom graphic layouts

In example 10.1 we introduced data from a CPAP machine. In brief, it's hard to tell exactly what's being recorded in the data set, but it seems to be related to the pattern of breathing. Measurements are taken five times a second, leading to on the o...

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