# Blog Archives

## Standard, Robust, and Clustered Standard Errors Computed in R

June 15, 2012
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$Standard, Robust, and Clustered Standard Errors Computed in R$

Where do these come from? Since most statistical packages calculate these estimates automatically, it is not unreasonable to think that many researchers using applied econometrics are unfamiliar with the exact details of their computation. For the purposes of illustration, I am going to estimate different standard errors from a basic linear regression model: , using the

## Visualizing Euro 2012: First Group Games

June 12, 2012
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Now that every team has played a match it will be interesting to see how this has affected the (inverse) odds of victory. Since the plot in my last post was a bit ‘busy’, I have decided to use the facet_wrap function in gglplot2 to stratify by group. Also, re-producing the ‘busy’ plot from the

## Visualizing Euro 2012 with ggplot2

June 9, 2012
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After scanning this paper by Zeileis, Leitner & Hornik, I thought it would be interesting to see how the victory odds for each team changes as Euro 2012 progresses. To do this, I am going to collect the daily inverse odds of a tournament victory offered by a popular betting site for each team. Here

## Let’s Party!

June 6, 2012
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Exploring whether regression coefficients differ between groups is an important part of applied econometric research, and particularly for research with a policy based objective. For example, a government in a developing country may decide to introduce free school lunches in an effort to improve childhood health. However, if this treatment is known to only improve

## Optim, you’re doing it wrong?

May 28, 2012
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Call me uncouth, but I like my TV loud, my beer cold and my optimization functions as simple as possible. Therefore, what I write in this blog post is very much from a layman’s perspective, and I am happy to be corrected on any fundamental errors. I have recently become interested in writing my own

## Time-Series Policy Evaluation in R

May 21, 2012
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Quantifying the success of government policies is clearly important. Randomized control trials, like those conducted by drug companies, are often described as the ‘gold-standard’ for policy evaluation. Under these, a policy is implemented in/to one area/group (treatment), but not in/to another (control). The difference in outcomes between the two areas or groups represents the effectiveness

## Simple Spatial Correlograms for Cross-Country Analysis in R

May 9, 2012
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Accounting for temporal dependence in econometric analysis is important, as the presence of temporal dependence violates the assumption that observations are independent units. Historically, much less attention has been paid to correcting for spatial dependence, which, if present, also violates this independence assumption. The comparability of temporal and spatial dependence is useful for illustrating why

## An ivreg2 function for R

May 3, 2012
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The ivreg2 command is one of the most popular routines in Stata. The reason for this popularity is its simplicity. A one-line ivreg2 command generates not only the instrumental variable regression coefficients and their standard errors, but also a number of other statistics of interest. I have come across a number of functions in R

## Probit/Logit Marginal Effects in R

April 23, 2012
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The common approach to estimating a binary dependent variable regression model is to use either the logit or probit model. Both are forms of generalized linear models (GLMs), which can be seen as modified linear regressions that allow the dependent variable to originate from non-normal distributions. The coefficients in a linear regression model are marginal

## Dummies for Dummies

April 19, 2012
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Most R functions used in econometrics convert factor variables into a set of dummy/binary variables automatically. This is useful when estimating a linear model, saving the user from the laborious activity of manually including the dummy variables as regressors. However, what if you want to reshape your dataframe so that it contains such dummy variables?