Before you use PERMANOVA (R-vegan function adonis) you should read the user notes for the original program by the author (Marti J. Anderson) who first came up with this method. An important assumtption for PERMANOVA is same "multivariate spread" among groups, which is similar to variance homogeneity in univariate ANOVA.

I'll show why you may draw the wrong conclusions if this assumption is not met:

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**Tags:** adonis assumptions, adonis(), betadisper(), Multivariate Spread, PERMANOVA, PERMANOVA Assumptions, R, Vegan Package